Only one report on the successful use of filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) in cats for severe neutropenia following azathioprine toxicity exists. Here, we report on a case in which a cat was prescribed methimazole but the medication was filled incorrectly with azathioprine tablets and the prescription label indicated a methimazole dosing regimen that was administered for three days before recognition of the error. On presentation, the cat’s physical examinations were consistent with previous examinations before ingestion of azathioprine. A complete blood cell count revealed neutropenia and leukopenia. The cat later developed hyporexia, dehydration, and vomiting. Treatment included antinausea and appetite stimulant medications, filgrastim, and antibiotics. Filgrastim given as subcutaneous injections over the course of treatment increased neutrophil cell counts after suppression. The cat made a full recovery after responding to the treatment protocol. Based on the perceived response to filgrastim in this single feline case report, its use can be considered for the treatment of azathioprine-induced neutropenia in cats.

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