The objective of the study was to describe the MRI features of cytologically or histologically diagnosed solitary vertebral masses in dogs and identify potential MRI features enabling differentiation between malignant and benign lesions. Patients were divided into malignant and benign groups according to the final diagnosis. Medical records and MRI studies were retrospectively reviewed, and specific imaging features were compared. The malignant group comprised 15 dogs, with 5 dogs included in the benign group. MRI features of the different histopathologic/cytologic types of masses are described. Involvement of the vertebral body, a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted, short tau inversion recovery, T1-weighted, and T1-weighted gradient echo sequences and evidence of cortical destruction were significantly associated with malignancy (P < .05). Hypointensity on T1-weighted gradient echo sequence was significantly associated with benign masses (P < .05). The presence of bone sclerosis was significantly associated with osteosarcomas compared with other malignant masses (P < .05). Fractures (5 cases) were only seen in the group of malignant masses. This pilot study identifies some MRI features that may help differentiate between malignant and benign solitary vertebral masses. Greater case numbers are needed in future studies.

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