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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

Instructions for Authors

Mission of JAAHA

The mission of the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (JAAHA) is to publish accurate, timely scientific and technical information pertaining to the practice of small animal medicine and surgery. JAAHA is a peer-reviewed publication, with a target audience of veterinarians in clinical practice and their practice team members.

Manuscripts submitted should be of value to the small animal practitioner and the practice team, related to clinical practice, or both. Preference is given to scientific reports of original studies or retrospective studies as well as review articles. Selected unique case reports are also considered. Authors considering submission of a review article should contact the editorial office ([email protected]) and Dr. Rebar ([email protected]) prior to manuscript preparation.

Each AAHA member practice, as well as individual veterinarians not affiliated with a practice team, will receive one print copy as a member benefit. Individual subscriptions are available. Please visit ( for more information.

The table of contents with author abstracts for each issue is published in Trends magazine (

Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

Authors should carefully review the instructions below when preparing a manuscript. If the Manuscript Preparation Guidelines and Submission Requirements are not followed, manuscripts will be returned to authors without review. Strict compliance with these instructions will expedite processing of the manuscript.

Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not been published in or submitted to other publications. It is acceptable, however, if data were presented in abstract form at a conference. All authors listed on the manuscript should have contributed significantly to the work described or should have generated part of the reported results. All authors should have reviewed and approved the contents of the manuscript prior to submission. Any author playing a minor role in the work reported should be removed from the author list and acknowledged for his or her contributions in the Acknowledgments section, which you will see during the upload process. The number of authors per paper should be no more than 10.

Categories of Manuscripts

Outlined below are types of articles that JAAHA will consider for publication.

  • Review articles: Review articles summarize, critically evaluate, and interpret existing literature regarding important topics in companion animal medicine. They should include the most recent information available. Maximum length is 5,000 words of text (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references), 50 references, and 5 tables and/or figures. Authors considering submission of a review article should contact the editorial office ([email protected]) and Dr. Rebar ([email protected]) prior to manuscript preparation.
  • Original studies: This broad category includes descriptions of new techniques or procedures, prospective clinical trials, and hypothesis-driven research of any nature that adds to the knowledge base in companion animal veterinary medicine. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; describe the design, methods, interventions, main outcome measures, and main results; place the results in context with the published literature; address the study limitations; and highlight the key findings in a conclusion. Data must be original and should be as timely as possible. Maximum length is 4,000 words of text (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references), 30 references, and 5 tables and/or figures.
  • Retrospective studies: Any study based on patient records accumulated over time.
  • Case series: A specific type of retrospective study that focuses on a specific disease or syndrome. A minimum of five cases must be included to be considered a case series. Maximum length is 4,000 words of text (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references), 30 references, and 5 tables and/or figures.
  • Case reports: A case report includes detailed descriptions of one to five animals. Case reports should be brief, limited to 2,500 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references), 20 references, and 2 tables and/or figures. These reports should describe unique or rarely reported clinical entities, unusual presentations or established clinical entities, new clinical diagnostic methods, or novel treatments and outcomes. The Discussion section of case reports should include justification of this case report and a critical review to establish the context for the case report and help in understanding the findings.
    If the Section Editor (or peer reviewers) identify the need for major revisions, manuscripts may be reworked by the authors and presented again for consideration. If on initial submission, the Section Editor and/or reviewers recommend minor (or no) revisions, the revised manuscript will be accepted if all other criteria for acceptance listed below have been met:
  1.  Adds notable new information to the literature base

  2.  Has adequate proof or support of diagnosis

  3. Provides justification for publication and/or context to explain the significance of the findings in the discussion 

  4. Treatment of patients is appropriate, adequate and/or humane

  5. Topic/slant/presentation is appropriate for readership (practicing companion animal veterinarians).( For example, a case report focused on a molecular or biochemical lesion to the exclusion of adequate consideration of clinical signs, treatment, or outcome will not be accepted.)

  6. Presentation is clear/straightforward/non-confusing/logical and is:

  • Organized

  • Clearly written in English

  • Grammatically correct


Authors who have ideas for review articles or contributions that do not fit easily into one of the above categories but, in their opinion, are appropriate for publication in JAAHA, are encouraged to contact the editorial office ([email protected]) and the Editor in Chief, Dr. Rebar ([email protected]).

Manuscript Style

Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals." For questions of style, refer to the American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide to Authors and Editors (AMA) by Cheryl Iverson. Refer to Stedman's or Dorland's Medical Dictionary for proper spelling and medical terminology. Writing should conform to acceptable English usage and syntax, and to JAAHA's style preference. Failure to use proper grammar and punctuation may result in failure to process the manuscript. Authors are encouraged to seek editorial assistance prior to submitting their manuscript.

Standard abbreviations and symbols are used in accordance with Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. Abbreviations should be used sparingly. Abbreviations should not be used in the title or at the beginning of a sentence at first use. The first time an abbreviation appears in the text, as well as the first time in figure legends and in table legends, the word being abbreviated should be written out in its entirety and should immediately precede the abbreviation. Place the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it appears. Create an abbreviations footnote at the end of your article, which provides the acronym and definition (e.g., ACT, activated clotting time; CHF, congestive heart failure).

All drugs, products, and equipment should be identified within the body of the text by their generic or chemical names. The use of brand names should be confined to the footnotes.
Body weights, temperatures, and drug dosages must be written in metric form. Drug dosages should be given on the basis mg/kg of body weight. Smaller increments may be used as needed (e.g., ng/kg, pg/kg). Where appropriate, mg/m2 may also be used. The frequency of administration should be delineated using the format q hr (e.g., q 4 hr, q 8 hr).

When typing numbers within the text, all numbers of nine or less should be written out, unless the number describes units of measurement (including time and dosages) (e.g., 5 days, 6 kg, 3 years). Use a numeral if the number is 10 or greater. Numbers are always spelled out if they begin a sentence.

Manuscript Format

The manuscript must be written and saved as a file in Microsoft Word (version 1995 or newer). Use no accessory programs such as automatic footnotes, etc. Tables should be included in the manuscript file, at the end of the document. Each table should appear on its own page. See the section on Tables below. Please note: Save the file without inline imported graphics or charts, i.e., do not embed figures within the manuscript. Figures must be submitted separately from the manuscript. See the section on Figures below.

Manuscripts must be double-spaced with 1-inch margins and left margin justification. Do not justify the right margin. The title/abstract, footnotes, references, and legends must also be double-spaced. Use the font Times New Roman, 12-point. Number pages consecutively, from the title through the figure legends page. Insert continuous line numbers throughout the manuscript. To insert line numbers in Microsoft Word, click on "page set up," then "layout," then "add line numbers," and "continuous," "whole document." Each line must be numbered.

Please note: All entries that may identify the author(s) or institutions of origin should be deleted from the text of the manuscript to conduct the blind peer-review process. Such entries include author names, institutional names, acknowledgments, and sources of funding. These will be submitted separately during the submission process. Replace institution names throughout text with XXX. When the article is accepted, the XXXs will be replaced with the appropriate information.

Manuscript Components

Regardless of the manuscript category, each part of the paper should begin on a new page using the page break function. Parts of the paper must appear in the following order:

  • Title page and unstructured abstract
  • Body
  • Footnotes
  • References
  • Figure legends
  • Tables
  • Title page and unstructured abstract: The title should be concise and no more than 15 words. The unstructured abstract is located on the first page following the title. It should include a one- to two-sentence synopsis of each major component of the manuscript (e.g., Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion--these headings should be left off from the abstract). Abstracts should be no more than 200 words.
  • Body: Subheadings to guide the reader must be used in the text. For original and retrospective studies, such headings include Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.
    • The Introduction should explain the rationale for the study and provide enough pertinent historical (referenced) information on the topic to allow the reader to understand the significance of the study. Conclude the Introduction with a statement of purpose for the paper.
    • The Materials and Methods section should describe the experimental design of any original studies or the source of material and parameters reviewed in retrospective studies. Statistical methods used to evaluate data should be clearly defined, as well as levels of significance used.
    • The Results section should factually relay all results and outcomes without any interpretation. Every parameter described in the Materials and Methods should be reported in the Results in the same order as introduced in the Materials and Methods. Do not duplicate information included in tables or figures.
    • The Discussion contains information on the interpretation and significance of the findings. It should be concise, pertinent to the current state of veterinary practice, and presented in the same order as the Results. Exhaustive literature reviews should be avoided.
    • The Conclusion should provide the reader with a clear summary of the major findings, outcomes, or lessons learned from the study.
  • Format for case reports consists of a title and unstructured abstract; a brief introduction explaining the rationale for the case report; and a description of the case(s), including presentation, diagnostic investigation, therapy, and outcome. Preparation of review articles should be discussed in advance with the editorial office ([email protected]) and Editor in Chief, Dr. Rebar ([email protected]). In the text, citations must be given in superscript Arabic numerals, numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear. All citations should appear at the end of the appropriate sentence(s). They should not be embedded within the sentence. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all citations. Limit citations to those that are necessary to delineate the source of specific information presented in the text.
  • Footnotes: Footnotes must be cited by superscript, lowercased letters arranged alphabetically. The footnote citation should be placed at the end of the drug or product name the first time it appears within the text. Footnotes should include the trade name or brand name and the manufacturer's name and location (i.e., city, state, zip code, country). Personal communications or unpublished data are cited as footnotes. Please note: Do not use software programs that create automatic footnotes or endnotes.
  • References: References with more than three authors should list only the first three authors, followed by "et al." Punctuation and syntax must agree precisely with the samples provided below. Be sure to provide both the first and last page number for each reference.
  • Style of References
    • Journal articles Weed LL. Medical records that guide and teach. N Engl J Med 1968;278:593-600. Landau JW, Newcomer VD, Schultz J. Aspergillosis, report of two instances in children associated with acute leukemia. Mycopathologia 1963;20:177-224.Steer PL, Marks MI, Klite PD, et al. Fluorocytosine: an oral antifungal compound. Ann Intern Med 1972;76:15-22.
    • Journal paginated by issue Seaman WB. A case of pancreatic pseudocyst. Hosp Pract 1981;16(Sept):45-8.
    • In Press Chassin MR, Kosecoff J, Soloman DH. How coronary angiography is used. JAMA, in press.
    • Proceedings (should only be cited when referred journal articles or textbook citations are not available and should be identified as personal communications)Seaman WB. A case of pancreatic pseudocysts. Proceed 19th Am Coll Vet Intern Med Forum, Minneapolis, 1999:181-3.
    • Books and other monographs Personal author(s) Williams CF. The Foundations of Intelligence. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1974:121-5.
    • Editor, compiler, chairman as author Dausset J, Colombani J, eds. Histocompatibility Testing. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1973:12-8.
    • Chapter in a book Williams CF. Man and his intelligence. In: Doe J, ed. The Foundations of Intelligence. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1974:736-41.
    • Magazine articles Roueche B. Annals of medicine: the Santa Claus culture. The New Yorker, 1971(Sep 4):66-81.
    • Websites Name of article in website. Name of website or sponsoring organization, url for website (e.g., and the date on which the website was visited.
  • Figure legends: All figure legends, captions, notes, source information, and permissions should be submitted with the text of your manuscript. If a figure has multiple panels (e.g., left, right or A, B, C) please specify each panel in the legend. When citing figures in your manuscript, insert them in consecutive numerical order within the main text of the manuscript within parentheses, e.g., (Figure 1), (Figures 2A, B) for multipart figures. Figure legends should appear on a separate text page after the reference list and should provide sufficient detail to render the figure intelligible without reference to the text. Explain all abbreviations and symbols, stains, and magnifications. For any copyrighted material, indicate that permission has been obtained. Figures follow a different workflow from your manuscript and should be submitted separately (see the Figure Guidelines).
  • Tables: The use of tables is encouraged to limit the overall length of the manuscript. Tables must be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate, the text or figures. All tables must be cited in the text in consecutive order within parentheses, e.g., (Table 1). Tables must be numbered consecutively and have a brief title. Do not list any author or institutional name(s) in the title. Make tables concise and comprehensive to the reader without reference to the text. For footnotes to tables, use the following symbols in this sequence: *,±,†,**,±±,††,***,±±±,†††.
  • Tables must be created in the same Microsoft Word document as the manuscript (Excel files are not acceptable) and double-spaced. Tables may be typed in the 9- or 10-point Times New Roman font.
  • Units of Measure: Conventional units should be changed to SI units throughout an article. Please refer to the AMA SI conversion calculator for additional assistance with conversions

Companion Files

Acknowledgments: Acknowledgment of individuals should cite the reason for the acknowledgment and be limited to those persons who provided substantial assistance with either the study or preparation of the manuscript. Reasons for acknowledgment include review of radiographs, statistical analysis and review, aid or production of photographs and illustrations, manuscript preparation. Please note: Acknowledgments must be submitted as a separate file and should not be included in the manuscript.

Figures: Digital artwork includes illustrations, photographs, graphs, and diagrams. Please carefully review the (see the Figure Guidelines). Suitable artwork must be uploaded at time of manuscript submission as a .tiff or .eps file with a resolution of 300 dpi or higher. Please note: Do not send original artwork, X-ray films, photocopies, slides, drawings, or hard copies of figures.

Supplementary Data

We invite you to include multimedia files (files that include sound and/or moving images) with your article. Please limit the resolution of images and length of the recording to the minimum required to communicate the necessary information. These files must be cited in the text in consecutive order, within parentheses, using Roman numerals (e.g., see supplementary Video I, Audio I, Figure II). Legends must be provided for all multimedia files and appear at the end of the manuscript as instructed for figure legends. Multimedia files must be saved in an MPEG format (with the file extension .mpg). A maximum of 10 megabytes of multimedia files may be submitted with your article. Multimedia files should be clearly labeled with the name of each file (e.g., Video I, Video II, Audio I, Audio II). You can upload video and audio to the submission website (

Submission Requirements

All manuscript submissions to JAAHA must include a submission fee, signed copyright agreement, signed consent to the Conflict of Interest and Animal Care and Use guidelines (Submission/Copyright form). These four elements, which are included on one form, must be emailed to the Journal office at [email protected]. Manuscripts that are uploaded to JAAHA will not be processed without the emailed Submission/Copyright form.

Submission Fee

Each submitted manuscript must include a $125 processing fee. No refunds are given for rejected manuscripts. The amount must be in U.S. dollars, payable by credit card (Visa, MC, AMEX). Please check that name and billing information are clearly legible.

Copyright Agreement

For submitting a manuscript, a signature is required on the Copyright form. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not been published in or submitted to other publications. Manuscripts and figures selected for publication become the property of the American Animal Hospital Association and may not be published elsewhere without written permission.


It is in the best interest of authors and reviewers to learn of any potential conflict of interest before initiating a review. Such information will not alter established editorial and review policies but will help the editorial staff avoid any potential conflicts that could give the appearance of a biased review.
Editorial Manager ( will prompt you to enter all sources of financial support and funding for the study. In this same field, authors also should disclose all financial interests they may have in companies that manufacture products cited in the study, or in companies that manufacture competing products. Such financial interests include employment, consultant positions, shareholding, ownership, or officer/advisory/board membership in the company.

Animal Care and Use Statement

Any manuscript describing work involving the use of animals must contain a descriptive statement allowing JAAHA representatives to confirm humane animal care and use.

  1. Investigations using research animals must comply with the Animal Welfare Act and the NRC Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Such investigations must contain a statement of favorable review by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (or equivalent).
  2. Manuscripts describing the use of client-owned animals to investigate new/unproven/comparative treatments, procedures, must contain a statement indicating that informed consent was obtained from pet owners for animals in both treatment and placebo/control groups (for prospective studies only).
  3. Manuscripts not involving new/unproven/comparative treatments, procedures, or techniques must contain a statement that the contemporary standard of care was provided to each animal.All animal use should be consistent with acceptable practices as described in AAHA policy statements. Any manuscript that describes methods that have subjected animals to inhumane conditions, or that do not comply with the above requirements, will not be considered for publication in JAAHA.

Peer Review Process

Authors will receive notification of receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by email. During the review process, authors may check the status of their submitted manuscript by logging on to Editorial Manager at (

All manuscripts submitted to the Journal are first reviewed by the appropriate Section Editor. Those that do not conform to the mission of the JAAHA or do not substantially add to the current body of knowledge of clinical small animal practice will be rejected. JAAHA reserves the right to reject any manuscript.

Those manuscripts that conform to the mission of JAAHA and contain sufficient information to warrant possible publication are sent to two or more experts for review. The review process is blinded, so that the reviewers are unaware of the authors or origin of the paper. Authors must delete any identifiers (e.g. names, references to institutions and animals hospitals) within the manuscript to ensure their identity and that of the originating institutions are not revealed.

Manuscripts are processed in the order in which they are received. Authors can expedite processing of their manuscripts by rapidly responding to reviewer and editorial comments. Manuscripts approved by the reviewers are accepted for publication once the corresponding author adequately addresses all editorial and production questions and concerns. Please note that the review process generally takes at least 6 months.

Final Proofs

All accepted manuscripts are subject to copyediting and editorial revisions, but the authors remain responsible for the statements in the work, including editorial changes and accuracy of references. Prior to publication the corresponding author will receive an electronic copy (via email) of the final copyedited manuscript for review. If your email address or other contact information changes after the time of submission, you must update such information on the submission website ( in order to receive a copy of your final manuscript.


All AAHA members, all authors with access to a U.S. or Canadian veterinary school library, and all authors who are members of veterinary institutions/clinics with an AAHA Practice Team membership may access and download PDF files of their articles from the JAAHA website after the paper has been published. For other authors, PDF files of the published manuscript may be downloaded from the JAAHA website ( for a nominal fee.
Questions about your submission? Call 303-986-2800, or email [email protected].

Manuscript Checklist

  1. Review manuscript submission requirements.
  2. Provide a concise yet descriptive title of no more than 15 words.
  3. On the title page, provide an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words.
  4. Double-space manuscript and leave right margins unjustified (ragged).
  5. Number pages and lines.
  6. Start each section of the manuscript on a separate page using the page break function in Microsoft Word.
  7. Check all references for accuracy and completeness. Cite references using the proper format ensuring that each is numbered consecutively.
  8. Include a title for each table and an explanatory legend for each figure.
  9. Ensure that tables are included in the same document as the manuscript and figure legends.
  10. Check that no names or acknowledgments are included in the manuscript to ensure peer-reviewers are blinded during the review process.
  11. Follow the Figure Guidelines carefully when preparing and submitting figures.
  12. Email the completed Submission/Copyright form to the Journal.

Last updated January 27, 2023

  American Animal Hospital Association
  1412 Denver West Parkway, Suite 245
Lakewood, Colorado, USA 80401
Email: [email protected]
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Phone: 303-986-2800
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