Four mosquito species—Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) galvaoi, An. (Anopheles) mediopunctatus, Culex (Culex) lahillei, and Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) geométrica—were recorded for the first time in northwestern Argentina. In addition, Psorophora (Grabhamia) confinnis and Cx. (Melanoconion) pedroi are reported for the first time in Jujuy Province, while Aedes (Ochlerotatus) hastatus, Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia) hermanoi, An. (Ano.) fluminensis, and An. (Ano.) punctimacula were reported for the first time in Tucumán Province.

Mosquito fauna of northwestern Argentina are updated, citing new records and extending the geographical distribution of some mosquito species. Previous studies have reported 242 species belonging to 23 genera in Argentina (Rossi 2015), which was later increased to 246 species (Stein et al. 2018). In northwestern Argentina a total of 174 species of mosquitoes have been reported, belonging to 14 genera: Mansonia, Psorophora, Sabethes, Toxorhynchites, Culex, Haemagogus, Limatus, Lutzia, Wyeomyia, Uranotaenia, Coquillettidia, Aedeomyia, Aedes, and Anopheles. This increased the number of species in Tucumán Province to 57, in Salta Province to 96, and in Jujuy Province to 62 (Dantur Juri et al. 2012, Linares et al. 2016, Veggiani Aybar and Rossi 2017).

Mosquito surveillance was conducted at different localities situated in the subtropical mountainous rainforest, also called Yungas, of Salta, Jujuy, and Tucumán provinces (Fig. 1). Collection sites were located within 2 major areas (north and south) of the piedmont forest, a subtropical mountainous rainforest. The northern area is characterized by the presence of trees, e.g., Calycophyllum multiflorum Griseb. and Phyllostylon rhamnoides (Poiss.) Tauber, with a dense shrub stratum up to 2 m high composed of lianas, climbers, and epiphytes. The typical Aguas Blancas, El Oculto, San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, Güemes, and Yuto are included in this area. It was considered these sampling sites to be natural habitats located in a primitive forest or wild ecosystem. The typical forest of the southern area consisted of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong as the primary trees, but a large portion has been replaced by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and citrus (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) plantations (Dantur Juri et al. 2010, 2012). La Florida and Sargento Moya, included in this area, are mainly located in a residual primitive forest with modifications as a result of human activities. The climate is subtropical and distinguished by 3 seasons: a warm and dry spring (September–December), a warm and rainy summer (January–April), and a temperate-cool and humid season that represents the autumn–winter period (May–August) (Brown and Grau 1995, Dantur Juri et al. 2011).

Fig. 1.

Mosquito collection sites in 3 provinces in northwestern Argentina. Black dots indicate the collection localities: 1 = Aguas Blancas, 2 = El Oculto, 3 = San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, 4 = Güemes, Salta Province; 5 = Yuto, Jujuy Province; 6 = La Florida, 7 = Sargento Moya, Tucumán Province.

Fig. 1.

Mosquito collection sites in 3 provinces in northwestern Argentina. Black dots indicate the collection localities: 1 = Aguas Blancas, 2 = El Oculto, 3 = San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, 4 = Güemes, Salta Province; 5 = Yuto, Jujuy Province; 6 = La Florida, 7 = Sargento Moya, Tucumán Province.

Close modal

Adult mosquitoes (M = male, F = female) were collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps baited with CO2 canisters, and with mechanical aspirators, which were used to capture specimens resting on vegetation. Mosquitoes captured were sacrificed with dry ice and transported to the central laboratory of Unidad Ejecutora Lillo (CONICET Fundación Miguel Lillo [FML]) for identification under a stereoscopic microscope using keys by Lane (1953), Darsie (1985), Consoli and Lourenço de Oliveira (1994), and Forattini (2002). Voucher specimens were deposited in the collection of FML, Tucumán, Argentina. Generic and subgeneric abbreviations used in this paper are those defined by the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (WRBU 2001).

Collection data included: material examined (M.E.), locality, collection date, number of collected specimens, collectors (Coll.), and taxonomists (Det.).

The following species are reported for the first time from the northwestern region of Argentina:

Anopheles (Anopheles) mediopunctatus (Theobald). Distribution: Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Misiones, Santa Fe. M.E.: Salta, Aguas Blancas (22°43′S, 64°21′W), 26-I-2005, 1F, 08-VI-2005, 1F; Salta, El Oculto (23°06′S, 64°31′W), 06-VI-2005, 2F, 11-VII-2005, 1F; Tucumán, Sargento Moya (S. Moya) (27°13′S, 65°39′W), 13-V-2003, 1F; Coll.: Dantur Juri, Laci, and Vianconi; Det.: Dantur Juri and Sallum Mureb. Medical relevance: natural infection with malaria parasites was observed in Colombia, suspected to be a minor vector in that country (Gorham et al. 1973).

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) galvaoi Causey, Deane, and Deane. Distribution: Chaco. M.E.: Salta, Aguas Blancas, 08-IX-2002, 1F, 26-VII-2004, 2F, 11-V-2005, 2F; Salta, El Oculto, 09-V-2004, 3F, 18-X-2005, 2F; Salta, San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (Orán) (23°7′S, 64°19′W), 12-XII-2003, 5F, 30-V-2004, 8F, 13-V-2005, 7F, 21-VIII-2005, 17F, 20-X-2005, 9F; Jujuy, Yuto (23°6′S, 64°46′W), 27-X-2005, 17F, 08-XII-2005, 42F; Tucumán, S. Moya, 26-IX-2002, 2F, 13-V-2003, 6F, 01-VI-2003, 3F; Coll.: Dantur Juri, Laci, and Vianconi; Det.: Dantur Juri.

Culex (Culex) lahillei Bachmann and Casal. Distribution: Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Corrientes, Santa Fe. M.E.: Tucumán, La Florida (27°13′S, 65°33′W), 02-XI-2003, 7F; S. Moya, 11-VI-2003, 2F, 12-VI-2003, 2F; Coll.: Dantur Juri and Oroño; Det.: Villarroel Martínez.

Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) geometrica Theobald. Distribution: Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Misiones. M.E.: Salta, Güemes (24°42′S, 65°5′W), 8-III-2013, 1F; Coll.: Dantur Juri, Laci, and Carrizo; Det.: Villarroel Martínez.

The species listed below are the first records for Jujuy and Tucumán provinces, respectively.

Jujuy Province:

Psorophora (Grabhamia) confinnis (Lynch Arribalzaga). Distribution: Buenos Aires, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fe, Tucumán. M.E.: Jujuy, Yuto, 8-XII-2005, 3F; Coll.: Dantur Juri, Laci, and Vianconi; Det.: Dantur Juri and Stein. Medical relevance: this species is an important vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) (Torres et al. 2017).

Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakam and Belkin. Distribution: Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Salta. M.E.: Jujuy, Yuto, 26-X-2005, 436F; Coll.: Dantur Juri, Laci, and Vianconi; Det.: Villarroel Martínez. Medical relevance: this species was reported as a major vector of VEEV in Panamá, Venezuela, and Colombia (Torres et al. 2017).

Tucumán Province:

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) hastatus Dyar. Distribution: Chaco, Corrientes, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta. M.E.: Tucumán, S. Moya, 9-IV-2003, 1F; Coll.: Dantur Juri, Laci, and Vianconi; Det.: Villarroel Martínez.

Anopheles (Anopheles) fluminensis Root. Distribution: Corrientes, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta. M.E.: Tucumán, S. Moya, 24-V-2002, 1F, 14-V-2003, 12F; Coll.: Dantur Juri and Oroño; Det.: Dantur Juri and Sallum Mureb.

Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula Dyar and Knab. Distribution: Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fe. M.E.: Tucumán, S. Moya, 25-V-2002, 3F, 05-III-2003, 1F, 12-V-2003, 4F; Coll.: Dantur Juri and Oroño; Det.: Dantur Juri and Sallum Mureb. Medical relevance: this species is considered as a secondary vector of malaria in Colombia (Gorham et al. 1973).

Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia) hermanoi (Lane and Coutinho). Distribution: Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones. M.E.: Tucumán, S. Moya, 26-I-2003; 77F; Coll.: Dantur Juri and Oroño; Det.: Dantur Juri and Stein.

These collection records update the list of species recorded from northwestern Argentina and increase the total number of species in the region to 184. The increases in number of species by province are as follows: Jujuy, 62 to 65; Salta, 96 to 100; and Tucumán, 57 to 64. Some species are of medical relevance. Aedes hastatus may be involved in arbovirus transmission, e.g., Pixuna virus that was isolated from this species collected in Tucumán Province, Argentina (Pisano et al. 2010, Dantur Juri et al. 2012). Psorophora confinnis belongs to a complex of species of considerable importance as vectors of arboviruses, e.g., VEEV. The VEEV subtypes IC and IAB have been isolated from Ps. confinnis (Turell et al. 2000, Torres et al. 2017).

Culex pedroi have been found infected with the VEEV subtype ID in the Magdalena Valley, Colombia, and this species has also been found infected with VEEV and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Puerto Almendras, Peru (Turell et al. 2005). Brazil–Peru and the Panama–Argentina subtypes of EEEV were isolated from Cx. pedroi (Turell et al. 2005).

We thank Cristian Laci and Daniel Carrizo of the National Coordination of Vectors Control, Argentinean Ministry of Health, for their collaboration during the field collecting trips. This contribution was supported by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Promotion (FONCyT) and the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET). We thank Eric D. Carter, Community and Global Health Concentration, Geography Department, Macalester College, for revising the text for the English grammar.

Brown
DA,
Grau
HR.
1995
.
Investigación, conservación y desarrollo en las selvas subtropicales de montaña
.
Tucumán, Argentina
:
Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Laboratorio de Investigaciones Ecológicas de las Yungas
.
270
p.
Consoli
RAGB,
Lourenço de Oliveira
RL.
1994
.
Principais mosquitos de importância sanitária no Brasil
.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Editora FIOCRUZ.
228
Dantur Juri
MJ,
Stein
M,
Mureb Sallum
MA,
.
2011
.
Occurrence of Anopheles (Anopheles) neomaculipalpus Curry in north-western Argentina
.
J Vector Borne Dis
48
:
64
66
.
Dantur Juri
MJ,
Stein
M,
Rossi
GC,
Navarro
JC,
Zaidenberg
M,
Mureb Sallum
MA,
.
2012
.
New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina
.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc
28
:
111
113
.
Dantur Juri
MJ,
Zaidenberg
M,
Claps
GL,
Santana
M,
Almirón
WR,
.
2010
.
Abundance patterns of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles argyritarsis in northwestern Argentina
.
Acta Trop
115
:
234
241
.
Darsie
RF
Jr.
1985
.
The mosquitoes of Argentina. Part I. Keys for identification of adult females and fourth stage larvae in English and Spanish (Diptera: Culicidae)
.
Mosq Syst
17
:
153
253
.
Forattini
OP.
2002
.
Culicidologia médica: identificação, biologia e epidemiologia. Volume 2
.
São Paulo, Brazil
:
Editora da Universidade de São Paulo
.
864
p.
Gorham
JR,
Stojanovich
CJ,
Scott
HG.
1973
.
Illustrated key to the anopheline mosquitoes of western South America
.
Mosq Syst
5
:
97
156
.
Lane
J.
1953
.
Neotropical Culicidae. Volumes 1 and 2
.
São Paulo, Brazil
:
Univ. São Paulo
.
Linares
MA,
Laurito
M,
Visintín
AM,
Rossi
GC,
Stein
M,
Almirón
WR.
2016
.
New mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) from northwestern Argentina
.
Check List
12
:
1
8
.
Pisano
MB,
Dantur Juri
MJ,
V,
Diaz
LA,
Farias
A,
Sanchez-Seco
MP,
Tenorio
A,
Almiron
W,
Contigiani
M
.
2010
.
Co-circulation of Río Negro virus (RNV) and Pixuna virus (PIXV) in Tucumán Province, Argentina
.
Trop Med Int Health
15
:
865
868
.
Rossi
GC.
2015
.
Annotated checklist, distribution, and taxonomic bibliography of the mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) of Argentina
.
Check List
11
:
1
15
.
Stein
M,
Alvarez
CN,
Alonso
AC,
Bangher
DN,
Willener
JA,
Campos
RE.
2018
.
New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) found in phytotelmata in Northern Argentina
.
Zootaxa
4399
:
87
100
.
Torres
R,
Samudio
R,
Carrera
JP,
Young
J,
Márquez
R,
Hurtado
L,
Weaver
S,
Chaves
LF,
Tesh
R,
Cáceres
L.
2017
.
Enzootic mosquito vector species at equine encephalitis transmission foci in the República de Panamá
.
PLoS ONE
12
: e0185491.
Turell
MJ,
Jones
JW,
Sardelis
MR,
Dohm
DJ,
Coleman
RE,
Watts
DM,
Fernandez
R,
Calampa
C,
Klein
TA.
2000
.
Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for epizootic and enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus
.
J Med Entomol
37
:
835
839
.
Turell
MJ,
O'Guinn
ML,
Jones
JW,
Sardelis
MR,
Dohm
DJ,
Watts
DM,
Fernandez
R,
Travassos da Rosa
A,
Guzman
H,
Tesh
R,
Rossi
CA,
Ludwig
GV,
Mangiafico
JA,
Kondig
J,
Wasieloski
LP
Jr,
Pecor
J,
Zyzak
M,
Schoeler
G,
Mores
CN,
Calampa
C,
Lee
JS,
Klein
TA.
2005
.
Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru
.
J Med Entomol
42
:
891
898
.
Veggiani Aybar
CA,
Rossi
GC.
.
2017
.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the meridian zone of the subtropical mountainous rainforest of Argentina: update on the fauna and geographical distribution
.
Check List
13
:
2102
2017
.
WRBU [Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit]
.
2001
.
Systematics catalog of Culicidae
[Internet].
Washington, DC
:
Smithsonian Institution
[accessed December 28, 2019]. Available from: http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/main.asp.

Author notes

1

Unidad Ejecutora Lillo (CONICET–Fundación Miguel Lillo), Miguel Lillo 251, CP 4000, San Miguel de Tucumán-Tucumán, Argentina.

2

Universidad Nacional de Chilecito, 9 de Julio No. 22, CP F5360CKB, Chilecito, La Rioja, Argentina.

3

Departamento de Entomología, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad del Nordeste, CONICET, CCT-Nordeste, Avenida Las Heras 727, CP 3500, Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina.

4

Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saude Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 715, 01246-904, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.