Haiti is home to approximately 11 million people and has a high incidence of vector-borne disease, including more than 70,000 cases of dengue per year. Vector control is difficult in Haiti and adulticide spray of malathion is the main method of control employed during the outbreak of disease although pyrethroids are used in both bed net campaigns and in widely available aerosol cans for personal use. However, limited pathogen or insecticide resistance surveillance data are available for making operational decisions. In this study, we assessed Aedes aegypti from serial surveillance collections from 3 locations for the presence of dengue virus serotypes 1-3 (DENV1-3) by polymerase chain reaction and assessed, by melt curve analysis, samples from 10 locations in 2 departments for the presence of two mutations (V1016I and F1534C), that in combination, are linked to strong pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Only one of the 32 tested pools was positive for the presence of dengue virus. The two knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations were present in all locations. The 1016I mutation frequency varied from 0.29 to 0.91 and was in all sites lower than the 0.58–1.00 frequency of the 1534C mutation. We also observed that the genotype homozygous for both mutations (IICC), which has been linked to strong pyrethroid resistance, varied from 13 to 86% in each population. Notably, 3 locations - Ti Cousin and Christianville in Ouest department and Camp Coq in Nord department had more than 30% of the tested population without the presence of kdr mutations. These results indicate that the kdr markers of pyrethroid resistance are present in Haiti, at high frequency in several locations and, based on previous studies linking kdr genotypes and phenotypic resistance, that operational interventions with pyrethroids are not likely to be as effective as expected.

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Author notes


USDA ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL 32608.


Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814.