The purpose of this study was to evaluate student learning outcomes in a flipped classroom versus a traditional classroom in a podiatric medical school. To date no published reports in podiatric medical schools have used the flipped classroom for the entirety of a medical school course.


Students from the class of 2017 completed the Emergency Medicine and Trauma course using traditional classroom lectures, and the class of 2018 used a flipped classroom approach. Each class took two assessments that contained 99 identical questions and completed a postcourse evaluation that contained student comments. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to determine whether student performances were significantly affected by the differences in the teaching method. Student evaluation comments were analyzed using textual data analysis to determine the sentiments that students expressed regarding their exposure to the teaching method.


The multivariate analysis of covariance results revealed that students scored slightly lower on assessments during the flipped classroom delivery compared with the traditional classroom delivery, when adjusted for Medical College Admission Test scores and grade point average, but not significantly (P = .4340). Similarly, the sentiment analysis of student comments indicated that the average positive sentiment score for the flipped classroom delivery was higher but was not significant (P = .08914).


The analysis showed there was not a statistically significant change in examination scores based on teaching method. Sentiment analysis revealed that student sentiments were more positive with the flipped classroom group compared with the traditional lecture group, although not statistically significantly.

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