Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common complaint among patients. Oftentimes, conservative treatment is inadequate, and surgical treatment is required. However, there is no published consensus regarding surgical intervention in reference to insertional Achilles tendinopathy.
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the surgical management of insertional Achilles tendinopathy and report which surgical procedures provide the greatest pain reduction and improvement in functional outcome. A review of PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was performed using a defined search strategy and inclusion criteria.
Of 2,863 articles identified using the defined strategy, 20 met the inclusion criteria (three prospective and 17 retrospective). Operative interventions included Achilles tendon debridement, reattachment with suture anchors, reconstruction with flexor hallucis longus tendon autograft or bone-patellar tendon autograft, and gastrocnemius recession. All of the studies, regardless of intervention, showed generalized improvement after surgery. Wide variation in outcome scoring systems prevented direct comparison between studies and interventions.
This systematic review did not identify a superior treatment for insertional Achilles tendinopathy but rather found that the surgical treatment should be based on the extent of tendon injury.