Acute rheumatic fever is a delayed inflammatory disease that follows streptococcal infection of the throat. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis is a sterile arthritis associated with antecedent streptococcal infection in patients not fulfilling the Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis has been reported to have lower-extremity predominance and, therefore, should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with lower-extremity arthritis. A review of the literature, distinguishing poststreptococcal reactive arthritis from acute rheumatic fever, and treatment options are discussed here. A case report is also presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 362–366, 2006)

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