Context: Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction exhibit increased cortical motor planning during simple sensorimotor tasks compared to healthy controls. This may interfere with proper decision-making during time-constrained movements elevating the re-injury risk.
Objective: To compare cortical motor planning and biomechanical stability during jump-landings between participants with ACL-reconstruction and healthy individuals.
Design: Cross-sectional exploratory study.
Setting: Laboratory patients or other participants: Ten males with ACL-reconstruction (28±4 yrs., 63±35 months post-surgery) and 17 healthy males (28±4 yrs.) completed pre-planned (landing leg shown before take-off; n=43±4) and unplanned (visual cue during flight; n=51±5) countermovement-jumps with single-leg-landings.
Main outcome measures: Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) and frontal theta frequency power before the jump were analyzed using electroencephalography. MRCP were subdivided into three successive 0.5 sec epochs (readiness potential 1 and 2; RP and negative slope; NS) relative to movement onset (higher values indicative of more motor planning). Theta power was calculated for the last 0.5 sec prior to movement onset (higher values indicative of more focused attention). Biomechanical landing stability was measured via vertical peak ground reaction force, time to stabilization, and center of pressure.
Results: Both conditions evoked MRCP at all epochs in both groups. During the unplanned condition, the ACL-reconstructed group exhibited slightly, but not significantly higher MRCP (RP-1:p=0.651, d=0.44, RP-2:p=0.451, d=0.48; NS:p=0.482, d=0.41). The ACL-reconstructed group also showed slightly higher theta power values during the pre-planned (p=0.175, d=0.5) and unplanned condition (p=0.422, d=0.3) reaching small to moderate effect sizes. In none of the biomechanical outcomes, both groups differed significantly (p>0.05). No significant condition and group interactions occurred (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Our jump-landing task evoked MRCP. Although not significant between groups, the observed effect sizes provide first indication that males with ACL-reconstruction may persistently rely on more cortical motor planning associated with unplanned jump-landings. Confirmatory studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.
Trial registry: clinicalTrials.gov (NCT03336060).