Context:

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been used for several decades and are effective antimicrobials. Despite their usefulness as antibiotics, a growing body of evidence has accumulated in the peer-reviewed literature that shows fluoroquinolones can cause pathologic lesions in tendon tissue (tendinopathy). These adverse effects can occur within hours of commencing treatment and months after discontinuing the use of these drugs. In some cases, fluoroquinolone usage can lead to complete rupture of the tendon and substantial subsequent disability.

Objective:

To discuss the cause, pharmacology, symptoms, and epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy and to discuss the clinical implications with respect to athletes and their subsequent physiotherapy.

Data Sources:

We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and SPORTDiscus databases for available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture) published from 1966 to 2012. Search terms were fluoroquinolones or quinolones and tendinopathy, adverse effects, and tendon rupture. Included studies were written in or translated into English. Non—English–language and non-English translations of abstracts from reports were not included (n = 1).

Study Selection:

Eligible studies were any available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture). Both animal and human histologic studies were included. Any papers not focusing on the tendon-related side effects of fluoroquinolones were excluded (n = 71).

Data Extraction:

Data collected included any cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the particular tendon affected, type of fluoroquinolone, dosage, and concomitant risk factors. Any data outlining the adverse histologic effects of fluoroquinolones also were collected.

Data Synthesis:

A total of 175 papers, including 89 case reports and 8 literature reviews, were identified.

Conclusions:

Fluoroquinolone tendinopathy may not respond well to the current popular eccentric training regimes and may require an alternative, staged treatment approach. Clinicians, athletes, athletic trainers, and their medical support teams should be aware of the need to discuss and possibly discontinue these antibiotics if adverse effects arise.

Key Points:
  • Tendinopathy can be a complication of treatment with fluoroquinolone antibiotics and usually is linked with 1 or more synergistic factors.

  • Symptoms of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy can present within hours of starting treatment or up to 6 months after ceasing treatment, and recovery can be slower and require a less aggressive approach early in rehabilitation than for other types of tendinopathy.

  • Treatment with fluoroquinolones should be discontinued and treatment with a nonquinolone antibiotic should be considered in patients who present with tendinopathy.

  • Clinicians, athletes, athletic trainers, and medical support teams should be aware of and alert to the potential adverse effects of fluoroquinolones.

The ability of fluoroquinolone antibiotics to adversely affect tendons has been the subject of many articles and case reports in the medical literature for nearly 3 decades. Clinicians, patients, athletes, and athletic trainers should be aware of the potential risks that fluoroquinolones pose with respect to both cause and potentiation of tendinopathy, which is described as the clinical presentation of pain associated with tendon loading.1  These drugs also can cause tendon rupture. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the cause, pharmacology, symptoms, and epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy. We also discuss the clinical implications of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy with respect to athletes and their subsequent physiotherapy, because this type of tendinopathy requires a different rehabilitation approach to tendinopathy that is not associated with fluoroquinolones.

METHODS

Literature Search Strategy

We conducted a computerized search of the relevant scientific literature from 1966 to 2012 using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and SPORTDiscus. Search terms were fluoroquinolones or quinolones and tendinopathy, adverse effects, and tendon rupture. Included studies were written in or translated into English. Non—English–language and non-English translations of abstracts from reports were excluded.

Selection Criteria

Eligible studies were any available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture); animal and human histologic studies also were included. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on the tendon-related side effects of fluoroquinolones.

Included Studies

A total of 175 papers, including 89 case reports and 8 literature reviews, were identified.

Data Extraction

Data collected included any cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the particular tendon affected, type of fluoroquinolone, dosage, and concomitant risk factors. Any data outlining the adverse histologic effects of fluoroquinolones also were collected.

RESULTS

Fluoroquinolone Drugs and Their Side Effects

The first quinolone antibiotic, nalixidic acid, was introduced in the 1960s,2  and this drug has undergone substantial development since then. Fluoroquinolones are effective against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and can be used to treat a range of infections affecting the respiratory systems and those causing prostatitis, skin soft tissue infections, and sexually transmitted disease.3  Fluoroquinolones are well absorbed when taken orally4,5  and have a long half-life; thus, dosing once or twice each day can be effective.3,6  They have been shown to be well tolerated in patients, but side effects can include gastrointestinal irritation, skin reactions, and central nervous system effects.7,8  Fluoroquinolones display a high affinity for connective tissue, particularly in cartilage and bone. Authors of animal studies have shown that these antibiotics may damage juvenile weight-bearing joints; therefore, these drugs are contraindicated in children. Commonly used fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, pefloxacin, and norfloxacin. Ciprofloxacin has been listed among the essential medications for physicians treating infections in high-level athletes9  and has been shown to be particularly effective for treating the common problem of “traveler's diarrhea” in athletes competing abroad.10 

Fluoroquinolone Effects Observed in Tendons

Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy was first reported in 1983.11  Bailey et al11  observed Achilles tendinopathy in a patient treated with norfloxacin for a urinary tract infection postrenal transplant. The first case of tendon rupture related to fluoroquinolones was published12  in 1988. Since the publication of these papers, evidence has grown in the literature regarding the tenotoxic effects of fluoroquinolones, much of which was summarized in 2 extensive reviews.13,14  Tendon pain and rupture were reported in patients treated with fluoroquinolones in a study of 98 case reports; the Achilles tendon was the principal tendon affected in 88 cases (89.8%).14  In an evaluation of more than 11 000 patients, rates of 2.4 incidences per 10 000 patient prescriptions for tendinitis and 1.2 per 10 000 for tendon rupture were cited.15  Tendinitis preceded rupture in 50% of 42 cases.16  Compared with the use of other antibiotics, the use of fluoroquinolones carries a 3.8-fold increased risk of Achilles tendinopathy.17 

Histologic Effects of Fluoroquinolones on Tendons

Normal tendon is primarily an extracellular tissue comprising mainly type I collagen fibers linearly arranged with proteoglycans and other noncollagenous proteins interspersed. The tendon cells (tenocytes) are specialized fibroblasts that produce collagen.1 

The pathways underpinning the tenotoxic effects of fluoroquinolones are unclear,18  but 3 main mechanisms have been proposed: ischemia, degradation of the tendon matrix, and adverse alteration of tenocyte activity.19  Matrix metalloproteinases are enzymes with degrading properties that are important in the homeostasis and response to injury of tendon tissue.20,21  Fluoroquinolones facilitate expression of matrix metalloproteinases in tendon tissue22 ; ciprofloxacin in particular has been shown to increase the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 in human Achilles tendon–derived cells and to reduce collagen synthesis via inhibition of tenocyte proliferation.8 

Presenting Symptoms

The most common presenting symptom of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy is pain.23  This pain is usually of a sudden onset and may be accompanied by acute signs of inflammation and swelling.24  Achilles tendon rupture may be preceded by pain,25,26  but half of tendon ruptures have been reported to occur without warning.14  Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are both sensitive and specific for assisting in the clinical diagnosis of tendinopathy or rupture.27 

Speed and Latency of Onset of Tendinopathy Symptoms

In a critical review of 98 case reports of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy, symptoms were reported as occurring within 2 hours of taking the medication and as long as 6 months after cessation of treatment, with a median time of onset of 6 days. Eighty-five percent of patients presented within 1 month, and 41% to 50% of patients experienced tendon symptoms after the fluoroquinolone was discontinued.14 

The Effect of Dose

The concentration of fluoroquinolones in tendon tissue after standard dosing is unknown.18  Authors of 2 studies with a combined total of 140 cases of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy observed tendon symptoms at a range of daily dosages (400 to 2000 mg) with a number of different fluoroquinolones but chiefly with pefloxacin14  and ofloxacin.16 

Tendons Affected

The Achilles tendon is affected in 95% of cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy and rupture.28  The weight-bearing role of the Achilles tendon is thought to be the reason for the high preponderance of injury in this structure.6,29  Researchers have also reported adverse effects in a number of other tendons: the peroneus brevis,30  patellar tendon,31  adductor longus,32  rectus femoris,33  triceps brachii, finger and thumb flexor tendons, supraspinatus, subscapularis, and tendons of the hip.34 

Relative Tenotoxicity of Fluoroquinolones

The most tenotoxic fluoroquinolone is not known because a lack of consensus exists in the literature, but ciprofloxacin has been implicated in many case reports.28,35  In 1 patient series (N = 98), pefloxacin was responsible for most cases of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy (37%), and ciprofloxacin was responsible for the second-largest percentage of cases (25.5%).14  In another series (N = 42), ofloxacin was cited as the fluoroquinolone most commonly responsible for tendinopathy (38% of patients), and ciprofloxacin was the second most commonly responsible fluoroquinolone (31% of patients).16  Bartlett et al36  implicated pefloxacin in 68% of 421 cases.

Levofloxacin has been cited as the least tenotoxic fluoroquinolone in humans.37  Durey et al2  showed that levofloxacin was safe and well tolerated, but authors of several case reports3739  demonstrated Achilles tendon rupture in patients using levofloxacin.

Concomitant Risk Factors to Fluoroquinolones

An independent risk of tendinopathy is associated with fluoroquinolones, but other risk factors also exacerbate this. Authors of several in vitro studies have reported reduction in ultimate tensile strength of and changes in tendon ultrastructure with aging.40  The elderly have stiffer tendons and undergo adverse structural changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix in their connective tissues as part of the aging process. The age range of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy is broad (18 to 91 years),13  but the mean age is 59 years.14 

Low-dose corticosteroids in isolation have been implicated in Achilles tendon rupture.41  Concurrent use of corticosteroids with fluoroquinolones appears to potentiate this adverse effect.12,24,28,29  In a literature review, Khaliq and Zhanel14  reported that 21 of 40 patients (52.5%) with fluoroquinolone-related tendon rupture had received systemic or inhaled corticosteroids. Patients prescribed both fluoroquinolones and corticosteroids had a 46-fold greater risk of Achilles tendon rupture than those taking neither medication.42  Fluoroquinolones are cleared via the kidneys; hence, renal pathologic conditions will adversely affect their excretion and exacerbate their adverse effects.11  A further risk factor for patients with renal transplants is that they also may be prescribed corticosteroids.38 

Exercise causes a tendon response, and loading of tendons during vigorous sport participation has been cited as the principal pathologic stimulus for tendinopathy.1  Researchers4345  found that the metabolic influence of elevated levels of adiposity also is associated with tendinopathy.

Excessive loading of tendons during physical training is regarded as the main pathologic stimulus for degeneration. Exercise can increase production of matrix metalloproteinases, some of which can adversely alter the structure of the extracellular matrix of tendons.46  Several recent case reports of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy have involved sporting or very physically active patients.6,2426,34  This may be a manifestation of the combined adverse effects of tendinopathy induced by exercise and mediated by fluoroquinolones. Lesser risk factors that are reported to exacerbate fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy include diabetes mellitus, rheumatic disease, gout, and hyperparathyroidism (Table 1).14 

Table 1. 

Risk Factors That Exacerbate Fluoroquinolone-Related Tendinopathy

Risk Factors That Exacerbate Fluoroquinolone-Related Tendinopathy
Risk Factors That Exacerbate Fluoroquinolone-Related Tendinopathy

DISCUSSION

Fluoroquinolones are effective antimicrobials but have very potent cytotoxic effects on human connective tissue.7,51  Despite this, some clinicians still believe the risk of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy is negligible.52  However, its consequences can be serious, with some patients developing substantial permanent disability.24  Authors26  of 1 case report attributed a death to fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy. Athletes should not be prescribed fluoroquinolones and should be given alternative antibiotics when possible, particularly if the aforementioned risk factors are present. For example, fluoroquinolone use by athletes who require corticosteroid treatment for asthma could be hazardous. Asthma is cited as being common in sportspeople.53 

It is generally accepted that at the first signs of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the antibiotic should be discontinued, and the patient should not be rechallenged with fluoroquinolone treatment.2  Despite this approach becoming more widely accepted, it is not universally the case, as evidenced by at least 2 case reports of patients developing bilateral Achilles tendon rupture after being advised to persist with treatment despite the onset of tendon pain and acute signs.24,25  However, withdrawal of fluoroquinolones after the onset of tendon pain or inflammation does not automatically ensure tendon integrity, because the tendon can become symptomatic or rupture many months after the completion of treatment. To increase awareness of fluoroquinolone tendinopathy, the US Food and Drug Administration acknowledged in 2005 the effect of fluoroquinolones on tendons and decreed that all fluoroquinolones have a black-box warning stating the risk of adverse events in tendons.52 

Eccentric training regimes in which the tendon is subjected to sustained physiologic load have gained popularity in the treatment of tendinopathy.54  Eccentric exercise has been reported to be successful in 90% of active or sporting individuals with tendinopathy55  but less successful in a more sedentary population.56  Loading a tendon with eccentric exercise may be appropriate for treating tendinopathy in an athlete, but it may not be the best option for treating fluoroquinolone-induced tendon conditions, at least in the early stages of symptoms. In a case study, Greene6  illustrated that patients with fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy should be rehabilitated differently. Rehabilitation should involve a 2-phase approach consisting of a phase of bracing and support to allow the tendon to recover from the chemical injury caused by the fluoroquinolone before a second phase of progressive loading.6 

Vitamin E has been found to protect against damage from the administration of ciprofloxacin on human fibroblast cells due to its prevention of free-radical damage in biological membranes.7  Whether this protective effect of vitamin E can be used as a mechanism against the harmful effects of fluoroquinolones in patients is unknown.

As with the members of the nonsporting population, athletes can be susceptible to infection requiring antibiotic treatment. Guidelines have been proposed5  for the use of fluoroquinolones in the sporting population (Table 2). These guidelines stipulate that athletes should avoid the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics if an alternative is available. Oral or injected corticosteroids should not be administered at the same time as fluoroquinolones, athletes and their athletic trainers should be aware of the potential risks of these drugs, and close monitoring is suggested for at least 6 months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Athletes who are returning to participation after injury and have concomitant increased adiposity levels already will be at risk of tendinopathy45 ; hence, use of fluoroquinolones at this time may be potentially hazardous.

Table 2. 

Guidelines for Fluoroquinolone Use in Athletesa

Guidelines for Fluoroquinolone Use in Athletesa
Guidelines for Fluoroquinolone Use in Athletesa

CONCLUSIONS

Fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy is a complication of treatment with this family of antibiotics and usually is linked with 1 or more synergistic factors: male sex, age, renal disease, rheumatic disease, coprescription of corticosteroid, and physical activity. If a patient who is taking fluoroquinolones presents with tendinopathy, treatment with this drug should be discontinued immediately, and an alternative, nonquinolone antibiotic should be considered. Recovery from fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy is sometimes slower than from other types of tendinopathy and may require a less aggressive approach in the early stages of rehabilitation. Clinicians treating both athletes and the general public should be aware of the possibility of tendinopathy in patients receiving fluoroquinolone treatment, and specific questioning of patients about fluoroquinolones should form part of the subjective examination for tendinopathy. They also should be aware that fluoroquinolone-related tendon symptoms can present within hours of beginning treatment or up to 6 months after cessation. Clinicians, athletes, their athletic trainers, and their medical support teams should be aware of the adverse effects of fluoroquinolones.

REFERENCES

1
Mafulli
N
,
Sharma
P
,
Luscombe
KL
.
Achilles tendinopathy: aetiology and management
.
J R Soc Med
.
2004
;
97
(
10
):
472
476
.
2
Durey
A
,
Baek
YS
,
Park
JS
,
et al
.
Levofloxacin-induced Achilles tendinitis in a young adult in the absence of predisposing conditions
.
Yonsei Med J
.
2010
;
51
(
3
):
454
456
.
3
Oliphant
CM
,
Green
GM
.
Quinolones: a comprehensive review
.
Am Fam Physician
.
2002
;
65
(
3
):
455
464
.
4
Simonin
MA
,
Gegout-Pottie
P
,
Minn
A
,
Gillet
P
,
Netter
P
,
Terlain
B
.
Pefloxacin-induced Achilles tendon toxicity in rodents: biochemical changes in proteoglycan synthesis and oxidative damage to collagen
.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother
.
2000
;
44
(
4
):
867
872
.
5
Tsai
WC
,
Yang
YM
.
Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy
.
Chang Gung Med J
.
2011
;
34
(
5
):
461
467
.
6
Greene
BL
.
Physical therapist management of fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendinopathy
.
Phys Ther
.
2002
;
82
(
12
):
1224
1231
.
7
Gürbay
A
,
Garrel
C
,
Osman
M
,
Richard
MJ
,
Favier
A
,
Hincal
F
.
Cytotoxicity in ciprofloxacin-treated human fibroblast cells and protection by vitamin E
.
Hum Exp Toxicol
.
2002
;
21
(
12
):
635
641
.
8
Corps
AN
,
Curry
VA
,
Harrall
RL
,
Dutt
D
,
Hazleman
L
,
Riley
GP
.
Ciprofloxacin reduces the stimulation of prostaglandin E2 output by interleukin-1beta in human tendon-derived cells
.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
.
2003
;
42
(
11
):
1306
1310
.
9
McCambridge
TM
.
What it takes to become a team physician
.
Patient Care
.
2006
;
40
(
9
):
41
47
.
10
Tillett
E
,
Loosemore
M
.
Setting standards for the prevention and management of traveller's diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team during the Youth Commonwealth Games in India
.
Br J Sports Med
.
2009
;
43
(
13
):
1045
1048
.
11
Bailey
RR
,
Kirk
JA
,
Peddie
BA
.
Norfloxacin-induced rheumatoid disease
.
N Z Med J
.
1983
;
96
(
736
):
590
.
12
McEwan
SR
,
Davey
PG
.
Ciprofloxacin and tenosynovitis
.
Lancet
.
1988
;
2
(
8616
):
900
.
13
Van der Linden
PD
,
Sturkenboom
MC
,
Herings
RM
,
Leufkens
HG
,
Stricker
BH
.
Fluoroquinolones and risk of Achilles tendon disorders: case-control study
.
Br J Med
.
2002
;
324
(
7349
):
1306
1307
.
14
Khaliq
Y
,
Zhanel
GG
.
Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy: a critical review of the literature
.
Clin Infect Dis
.
2003
;
36
(
11
):
1404
1410
.
15
Wilton
LV
,
Pearce
GL
,
Mann
RD
.
A comparison of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, azithromycin, and cefixime examined by observational cohort studies
.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
.
1996
;
41
(
4
):
277
284
.
16
Van der Linden
PD
,
van Puijenbroek
EP
,
Feenstra
J
,
et al
.
Tendon disorders attributed to fluoroquinolones: a study on 42 spontaneous reports in the period 1988 to 1998
.
Arthritis Rheum
.
2001
;
45
(
3
):
235
239
.
17
Chajed
PN
,
Plit
ML
,
Hopkins
PM
,
Malouf
MA
,
Glanville
AR
.
Achilles tendon disease in lung transplant recipients: association with ciprofloxacin
.
Eur Respir J
.
2002
;
19
(
3
):
469
471
.
18
Tsai
WC
,
Hsu
CC
,
Tang
FT
,
Wong
MK
,
Chen
YC
,
Pang
JH
.
Ciprofoxacin-mediated cell proliferation inhibition and G2/M cell cycle arrest in rat tendon cells
.
Arthritis Rheum
.
2008
;
58
(
6
):
1657
1663
.
19
Childs
SG
.
Pathogenesis of tendon rupture secondary to fluoroquinolone therapy
.
Orthop Nurs
.
2007
;
26
(
3
):
175
182
.
20
Bramono
DS
,
Richmond
JC
,
Weitzel
PP
,
Kaplan
DL
,
Altman
GH
.
Matrix metalloproteinases and their clinical application in orthopaedics
.
Clin Orthop Relat Res
.
2004
;
428
:
272
285
.
21
Pasternak
B
,
Aspenberg
P
.
Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors: diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities in orthopaedics
.
Acta Orthop
.
2009
;
80
(
6
):
693
703
.
22
Vyas
H
,
Krishnaswamy
G
.
Imaging in clinical medicine: quinolone-associated rupture of the Achilles' tendon
.
N Engl J Med
.
2007
;
357
(
20
):
2067
.
23
Levadoux
M
,
Carli
P
,
Gadea
JF
,
De Mauleon De Bruyere P, Perre C. Repeated rupture of the extensor tendons of the hand due to fluoroquinolones: apropos of a case [in French]
.
Ann Chir Main Memb Super
.
1997
;
16
(
2
):
130
133
.
24
Lewis
TG
.
A rare case of ciprofloxacin-induced bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon
.
BMJ Case Rep
.
2009
;
2009
. doi:.
25
Ng
WF
,
Naughton
M
.
Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy: a case report
.
J Med Case Rep
.
2007
;
1
:
55
.
26
Gottschalk
AW
,
Bachman
JW
.
Death following complete Achilles tendon rupture in a patient on fluoroquinolone therapy: a case report
.
J Med Case Rep
.
2009
;
3
:
1
.
27
de Jesus
JO
,
Parker
L
,
Frangos
AJ
,
Nazarian
LN
.
Accuracy of MRI, MR arthrography, and ultrasound in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears: a meta-analysis
.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
.
2009
;
192
(
6
):
1701
1707
.
28
Akali
AU
,
Niranjan
NS
.
Management of bilateral Achilles tendon rupture associated with ciprofloxacin: a review and case presentation
.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
.
2008
;
61
(
7
):
830
834
.
29
Ribard
P
,
Audisio
F
,
Kahn
MF
,
et al
.
Seven Achilles tendinitis including 3 complicated by rupture during fluoroquinolone therapy
.
J Rheumatol
.
1992
;
19
(
9
):
1479
1481
.
30
Casparian
JM
,
Luchi
M
,
Moffat
RE
,
Hinthorn
D
.
Quinolones and tendon ruptures
.
South Med J
.
2000
;
93
(
5
):
488
491
.
31
Saint
F
,
Gueguen
G
,
Biserte
J
,
Fontaine
C
,
Mazeman
E
.
Rupture of the patellar ligament one month after treatment with fluoroquinolone [in French]
.
Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot
.
2000
;
86
(
5
):
495
497
.
32
Mouzopoulos
G
,
Stamatakos
M
,
Vasiliadis
G
,
Skandalakis
P
.
Rupture to adductor longus tendon due to ciprofloxacin
.
Acta Orthop Belg
.
2005
;
71
(
6
):
743
745
.
33
Karistinos
A
,
Paulos
LE
.
“Ciprofloxacin-induced” bilateral rectus femoris tendon rupture
.
Clin J Sport Med
.
2007
;
17
(
5
):
406
407
.
34
Ganske
CM
,
Horning
KK
.
Levofloxacin-induced tendinopathy of the hip
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2012
;
46
(
5
):
e13
.
35
Gultuna
S
,
Köklü
S
,
Arhan
M
,
Aydin
M
,
Mesci
P
,
Usküdar
O
.
Ciprofloxacin induced tendinitis
.
J Clin Rheumatol
.
2009
;
15
(
4
):
201
202
.
36
Bartlett
JG
,
Dowell
SF
,
Mandell
LA
,
File
TM
Jr,
Musher
DM
,
Fine
MJ
.
Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: Infectious Diseases Society of America
.
Clin Infect Dis
.
2000
;
31
(
2
):
347
382
.
37
Parmar
C
,
Meda
KP
.
Achilles tendon rupture with combination therapy of levofloxacin and steroid in four patients and a review of the literature
.
Foot Ankle Int
.
2007
;
28
(
12
):
1287
1289
.
38
Melhus
A
,
Apelqvist
J
,
Larsson
J
,
Eneroth
M
.
Levofloxacin-associated Achilles tendon rupture and tendinopathy
.
Scand J Infect Dis
.
2003
;
35
(
10
):
768
770
.
39
Yamaguchi
H
,
Kawai
H
,
Matsumoto
T
,
et al
.
Post-marketing surveillance of the safety of levofloxacin in Japan
.
Chemotherapy
.
2007
;
53
(
2
):
85
103
.
40
Carroll
CC
,
Dickinson
JM
,
Haus
JM
,
et al
.
Influence of aging on the in vivo properties of human patellar tendon
.
J Appl Physiol
.
2008
;
105
(
6
):
1907
1915
.
41
Newnham
DM
,
Douglas
JG
,
Legge
JS
,
Friend
JA
.
Achilles tendon rupture: an underrated complication of corticosteroid treatment
.
Thorax
.
1991
;
46
(
11
):
853
854
.
42
Corrao
G
,
Zambon
A
,
Bertu
L
,
et al
.
Evidence of tendinitis provoked by fluoroquinolone treatment: a case-control study
.
Drug Saf
.
2006
;
29
(
10
):
889
896
.
43
Gaida
JE
,
Cook
JL
,
Bass
SL
.
Adiposity and tendinopathy
.
Disabil Rehabil
.
2008
;
30
(
20–22
):
1555
1562
.
44
Gaida
JE
,
Ashe
MC
,
Bass
SL
,
Cook
JL
.
Is adiposity an under-recognized risk factor for tendinopathy? A systematic review
.
Arthritis Rheum
.
2009
;
61
(
6
):
840
849
.
45
Gaida
JE
,
Alfredson
H
,
Kiss
ZS
,
Bass
SL
,
Cook
JL
.
Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology is associated with a central fat distribution in men and a peripheral fat distribution in women: a cross-sectional study of 298 individuals
.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
.
2010
;
11
:
41
.
46
Magra
M
,
Maffulli
N
.
Matrix metalloproteases: a role in overuse tendinopathies
.
Br J Sports Med
.
2005
;
39
(
11
):
789
791
.
47
Damuth
E
,
Heidelbaugh
J
,
Malani
PN
,
Cinti
SK
.
An elderly patient with fluoroquinolone-associated Achilles tendinitis
.
Am J Geriatr Pharmacother
.
2008
;
6
(
5
):
264
268
.
48
Malaguti
M
,
Triolo
L
,
Biagini
M
.
Ciprofloxacin-associated Achilles tendon rupture in a haemodialysis patient
.
J Nephrol
.
2001
;
14
(
5
):
431
432
.
49
Filippucci
E
,
Farina
A
,
Bartolucci
F
,
Spallacci
C
,
Basilacchi
P
,
Grassi
W
.
Levofloxacin-induced bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon: clinical and sonographic findings [in Italian]
.
Reumatismo
.
2003
;
55
(
4
):
267
269
.
50
Palin
SL
,
Gough
SC
.
Rupture of the Achilles tendon associated with ciprofloxacin
.
Diabet Med
.
2006
;
23
(
12
):
1386
1387
.
51
Aranha
O
,
Wood
DP
,
Sarkar
FH
.
Ciprofloxacin mediated cell growth inhibition, S/G2-M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in a human transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder cell line
.
Clin Cancer Res
.
2000
;
6
(
3
):
891
900
.
52
Kim
GK
,
Del Rosso
JQ
.
The risk of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy and tendon rupture: what does the clinician need to know?
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
.
2010
;
3
(
4
):
49
54
.
53
Ulrick
CS
,
Svennigsen
C
.
High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes
.
Dan Med J
.
2012
;
59
(
4
):
A4405
.
54
Khan
KM
,
Cook
JL
.
Overuse tendon injuries: where does the pain come from?
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev
.
2000
;
8
(
1
):
17
31
.
55
Fahlström
M
,
Jonsson
P
,
Lorentzon
R
,
Alfredson
H
.
Chronic Achilles tendon pain treated with eccentric calf-muscle training
.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
.
2003
;
11
(
5
):
327
333
.
56
Sayana
MK
,
Maffuli
N
.
Eccentric calf muscle training in non-athletic patients with Achilles tendinopathy
.
J Med Sci Sport
.
2007
;
10
(
1
):
52
58
.