Middle school (MS) parents may benefit from education supporting timely concussion identification and care-seeking in their young children (aged ∼10-15 years). However, such education may not consider individual needs and varying social context factors, including lower socioeconomic status (SES), disadvantaged social determinants of health, or different racial backgrounds.


To examine the relationship between social context factors and concussion knowledge, attitudes, and communication in MS parents, while also exploring the potential roles of race and ethnicity (Black vs. White) as an effect measure modifier.


Cross-sectional study.


Online survey.

Patients of Other Participants:

A nationally representative sample of MS parents who completed an online survey (n=1248).

Main Outcome Measure(s):

Parent outcomes included history of previous concussion education, concussion symptom knowledge and attitudes, and communication with children about concussion. Main exposures were parent's race and ethnicity (Black vs. White) and social context factors. Uni- and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to achieve the study aims.


Black parents were more likely than White parents to have received concussion education (69.5% vs 60.5%, p=0.009), though median concussion knowledge scores were significantly higher in White compared to Black parents (40 vs 37, p<0.001). Few associations were found within social context factors for concussion knowledge, attitudes, and communication in White and Black parents separately.


Among MS parents, race and ethnicity may not influence the association between social context factors and concussion-related knowledge, attitudes. or communication. However, differences were found among participants by race and ethnicity regarding previous concussion education and other parent outcomes, particularly concussion symptom knowledge.

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