Myotonometry is a relatively novel method used to quantify the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties (stiffness, compliance, tone, elasticity, creep, mechanical relaxation) of palpable musculotendinous structures with portable mechanical devices called myotonometers. Myotonometers obtain these measures by recording the magnitude of radial tissue deformation that occurs in response to the amount of force that is perpendicularly applied to the tissue through a device's probe. Myotonometric parameters such as stiffness and compliance have repeatedly demonstrated strong correlations with force production and muscle activation. Paradoxically, individual muscle stiffness measures have been associated with both superior athletic performance and higher incidence of injury. This suggest there may be optimal stiffness levels that promotes athletic performance while too much or too little may lead to an increased risk of injury. Numerous studies suggest that myotonometry may assist practitioners in the development of performance and rehabilitation programs that improves athletic performance, mitigates injury risk, guides therapeutic interventions, and optimizes return to activity decision making. Thus, the purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the potential utility of myotonometry as a clinical tool that assists musculoskeletal clinicians with the diagnosis, rehabilitation, and prevention of athletic injuries.

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