Context: Concussion underreporting leads to delays in diagnosis and treatment, prolonging recovery time. Athletes' self-report of concussion symptoms therefore reduces risk.
Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of three concussion education programs in improving concussion-reporting intention.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial with assessment immediately and one-month after education.
Setting: Three high schools in California.
Patients or Other Participants: 118 male football players were randomly assigned to receive concussion education via: CrashCourse (CC), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) video educational materials (Vi), or CDC written educational materials (Wr).
Main Outcome Measures: Concussion-reporting intention was assessed at baseline, immediately after education, and at one-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included concussion knowledge, attitudes, perceived reporting norms, and perceived behavioral control.
Results: Athletes across all educational formats had significant improvement in concussion-reporting intention immediately following education and at one-month follow-up (mean improvement 6.8% and 11.4%, respectively; p<0.001). Similar findings were observed across all education formats in secondary analyses examining knowledge, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control. However, there were significant differences by education and time (p=0.03). On post-hoc analysis, athletes who received CC had increased concussion-reporting intention immediately and at one-month (baseline=4.7, immediate=6.1, one-month=6.0; p=0.007 compared to significant increases only at one-month for CDC-Vi (baseline=4.3, immediate=5.2, one-month=5.8; p=0.001), and no significant improvement for CDC-Wr (p=0.10). Secondary analyses indicated significant differences between CC and both CDC interventions, in concussion knowledge and attitudes, immediately after education and at one-month. There were no significant differences in perceived behavioral control between-interventions or in perceived concussion-reporting norms across or between interventions.
Conclusion: All athletes exhibited improved intent to report concussions, increased concussion knowledge, better concussion attitudes, and more perceived behavioral control, both immediately after education and at one-month follow-up. However, athletes randomized to CC reported greater intent to report concussion, more knowledge, and improved concussion-reporting attitudes, when compared to CDC-Vi and CDC-Wr.
Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov trial ID number is XXX.