Catheter-related central venous thrombosis is a serious complication in patients who need long-term venous access. Though scientific data and clinical experience are steadily increasing, many uncertainties still exist about several aspects of this complication, including etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prevention of this complication. The GAVeCeLT (the Italian Study Group for Long Term Central Venous Access) promoted a nationwide consensus, and 12 experts reviewed systematically all the available literature. A preliminary document was presented and discussed during a specific Consensus Meeting, in front of a panel of more than 80 experts (representing different health professions and disciplines). This led to a prefinal document, which was presented to more than 800 health professionals. After peer review by an external board of experts, the final document was prepared. In this article, methodology and results of the consensus are presented.