Mechanical ventilation, duration of line, and site are risk factors for CADVT.
CADVT is associated with increase in ICU and hospital length of stay.
Ultrasound guidance for insertion of line is associated with less risk of CADVT.
Introduction: Catheter-associated deep vein thrombosis (CADVT) in children has been recognized as a significant hospital-acquired condition. This study was undertaken to retrospectively analyze the impact of CADVT on outcomes and to identify risk factors for the development of deep vein thrombosis in children with central venous catheters.
Methods: This was a single-center retrospective case-control study of patients with central venous catheters in a pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) from January 2014 to December 2018. Forty-one patients with central venous catheters who developed CADVT were compared with 100 random controls. Central venous catheter type, along with patient and disease-specific characteristics, were compared between the two groups by univariate and multivariate regression. Outcome comparison was made after adjusting for confounding variables.
Results: Median time from insertion to the development of CADVT was 4 days (interquartile range, 2–9). Forty percent (16/40) of patients had a blood urea nitrogen greater than 20 mg/dL, and 86.6% (13/15) had a C-reactive protein greater than 1 mg/dL within 48 hours of development of CADVT. Central venous catheter duration (odds ratio [OR], 1.05), mechanical ventilation (OR, 7.49), and upper versus lower extremity site of the central venous catheter (OR, 0.324) were associated with the development of CADVT. Ultrasound guidance occurred significantly less in patients who developed CADVT (39.3% vs 70.7%); however, it was not independently associated with increased risk. Age, body mass index, mechanical ventilation, and severity of illness–adjusted hospital and ICU length of stay were significantly higher in patients who developed CADVT.
Conclusions: CADVT is independently associated with worse outcomes. Ultrasound guidance and site selection are potential modifiable risk factors in the development of CADVT in pediatric patients. Future studies should target an effective chemoprophylaxis regimen.