Highlights
  • Ultrasound cannot replace chest radiography in confirming peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) positioning.

  • Saline bubbles are an accurate way to verify PICC positioning.

  • A standard amount of time to confirm PICC location with saline bubbles is not established.

  • There is potential for expanded ultrasound protocols to confirm PICC positioning.

Abstract

Background: Real-time utilization of ultrasound to confirm peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement improves efficacy and reduces patient radiation exposure. We evaluated if novice ultrasound users could accurately confirm appropriate PICC tip location via ultrasound assessment.

Methodology: A prospective data collection study was conducted in an academic center with an established PICC team. Novice ultrasonography users performed 2 echocardiographic views (subcostal and apical 4 chamber) and noted position of visible wire. The presence of central bubbles (visualized in the heart) after a saline infusion, as well as time to bubbles (push-to-bubbles) seen in all patients, was also recorded. Image quality and confidence in imaging acquisition was also recorded.

Results: Twenty-eight patients between ages 0 and 18 were enrolled over the study period with mean patient age of 10 years and median weight of 34 kg. The quality of image acquisition was rated as great only 34–44%. The wire was visualized only 25% of the time. The median push-to-bubble time when the PICC was later confirmed to be in appropriate positioning was 1.5 seconds with a delay of greater than 3 seconds 40% of the time when the line was malpositioned. The overall positive predictive value of ultrasound identifying malpositioned lines in this study was 43%.

Conclusions: With this PICC placement technique, ultrasound confirmation of PICC placement by novice ultrasound users was not superior to confirmation with chest radiograph. There may remain potential for future ultrasound protocols, with pediatric-specific technology or echogenic catheter tips, to reduce radiation exposure from chest radiograph during PICC line positioning verification.

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