This is a report of the results of 4 facilitated workshops aimed at developing a standardized chiropractic technique curriculum.


Workshops were held at research conferences during 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2019. Participants were tasked with developing recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures appropriate for chiropractic technique programs.


For diagnostic procedures, there was general agreement among participants that chiropractic programs should include diagnostic imaging, postural assessment, gait analysis, palpation (static, motion, and joint play/springing), global range of motion, and evidence-based orthopedic/neurological tests. No consensus could be reached with respect to chiropractic x-ray line marking (spinography) nor heat sensing instruments, and there was only partial consensus on leg length assessment. For therapeutic procedures, all participants agreed that the following should be included: high-velocity, low amplitude spinal and extremity manipulation, adjustments assisted by hand-held instruments, drop tables, flexion-distraction tables, and pelvic blocks. There was unanimous support for teaching mobilization of the spine and peripheral joints, as well as for manual and instrument-assisted soft tissue therapies. There were some overarching issues: participants strongly preferred assessment methods known to be reliable and valid and therapeutic procedures known to be safe and effective. Where evidence was lacking, they insisted that diagnostic and therapeutic methods at minimum have face validity and biological plausibility. However, they cautioned against applying aspects of evidence-based care too rigidly.


Despite differing views on chiropractic terminology, philosophy, and scope of practice, participants' opinions were similar regarding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that ought to be included in chiropractic technique programs.

This content is only available as a PDF.

Author notes

Brian Gleberzon is a professor and Chair of the Department of Chiropractic Therapeutics at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (6100 Leslie St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M2H 3J1, Canada; bgleberzon@cmcc.ca). Robert Cooperstein is a professor and Chair, Departments of Technique and Research at Palmer Chiropractic College West (90 East Tasman Drive, San Jose, California 95134; cooperstein_r@palmer.edu). Christopher Good is a professor of clinical sciences at the University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic (376 Ruane Street, Fairfield, Connecticut 06824; cgood@bridgeport.edu). Christopher Roecker is a staff chiropractor, US Department of Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Whole Health Department (2201 N Broadwell Avenue, Grand Island, Nebraska 68803; chrisroecker@outlook.com). Charles Blum is an instructor at the Southern California University of Health Sciences (1752 Ocean Park Boulevard, Santa Monica, California 90405; drcblum@aol.com).

Concept development: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Design: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Supervision: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Data collection/processing: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Analysis/interpretation: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Literature search: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Writing: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB. Critical review: BJG, RC, CG, CR, CB.