Objective

The chiropractic techniques that chiropractors learn during their training strongly influence the nature of treatments provided by chiropractors and their professional identity. The objective of this project is to provide an exhaustive description of all chiropractic techniques and treatment modalities taught in chiropractic educational institutions.

Methods

International experts were solicited to provide feedback on the exhaustivity and clarity of our preliminary questionnaire. Following the expert suggestions, we administered our cross-sectional survey representatives of all chiropractic education institutions listed on the World Federation of Chiropractic website. We also asked the contact information for an additional contact from each institution and surveyed them for triangulation purposes.

Results

Among the 47 chiropractic education institutions surveyed, 29 completed our survey (response rate: 62%) of which 18 (62%) had 2 respondents. Among all the chiropractic techniques and treatment modalities investigated, only the Diversified technique was included in the core curriculum of all responding institutions. A considerable proportion of the techniques or modalities studied were not included in the educational activities of the institutions, particularly within the manual tonal or reflex techniques, instrument-assisted articular techniques, as well as the other techniques or modalities categories. Surprisingly, exercise prescription was not included in the core curriculum of all the institutions. Some scientifically challenged approaches were included in the educational activities of more than 40% of the institutions.

Conclusion

The portfolio of therapeutic teaching varies greatly between chiropractic educational institutions. A more standardized therapeutic curriculum could be beneficial to reduce public and interprofessional confusion toward therapeutic approaches in chiropractic.

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Author notes

Élisa Dubuc is with the Chiropractic Department at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Département de Chiropratique, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5H7, Canada; elisa.dubuc@uqtr.ca). Isabelle Pagé is an assistant professor, in the Chiropractic Department at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Département de Chiropratique, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5H7, Canada; isabelle.page1@uqtr.ca). Pierre Boucher is a full professor, in the Chiropractic Department at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Département de Chiropratique, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5H7, Canada; pierre.b.boucher@uqtr.ca). Danica Brousseau is a full professor in the Chiropractic Department at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Département de Chiropratique, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5H7, Canada; danica.brousseau@uqtr.ca). Sébastien Robidoux is an associate professor, in the Chiropractic Department at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Département de Chiropratique, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5H7, Canada; sebastien.robidoux@uqtr.ca); Marc-André Blanchette (corresponding author) is an assistant professor, in the Chiropractic Department at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Département de Chiropratique, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5H7, Canada; marc-andre.blanchette1@uqtr.ca). This article was received June 15, 2021, revised August 12, 2021, and accepted September 27, 2021.

Concept development: IP, PBB, DB, SR, MAB. Design: IP, PBB, DB, SR, MAB. Supervision: MAB. Data collection and processing: MAB, ED. Analysis and interpretation: ED, IP, PBB, DB, SR, MAB. Literature search: MAB, ED. Writing: MAB, ED. Critical review: IP, PBB, DB, SR, MAB, ED.