ABSTRACT

According to the American Psychiatric Association, in 2018, approximately 2 million Americans were suffering from a substance abuse disorder, defined as substance abuse and dependence (1), related to opioids that were prescribed for pain management (2), while worldwide, it is estimated this approaches 16 million (3). Consequently, exercise clinicians will be increasingly exposed to individuals who have been affected by opioids and should therefore know how these drugs affect physiological functioning and how exercise can play a role in opioid addiction recovery. This review article is intended to provide some of this information.

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