Heat exposure induces acute changes in arterial function, but sex differences have not been fully addressed.


Participants walked (5km/h; 2% incline) in a climate chamber (42°C;50%RH) for 120mins. Cutaneous microvascular function (laser doppler flowmetry), conduit artery haemodynamics (Doppler ultrasound) and core temperature were measured at baseline, and every 30min.


14♂ and 15♀ completed 120min. At baseline, differences in core temperature (Tc) between males and females were not significant (37.2±0.1 vs 37.0±0.1°C; P=0.06). Across all 5 timepoints, females exhibited larger Tc than males (P=0.019). At baseline, males had larger brachial (3.89±0.11 vs 3.13±0.09mm, P<0.001) and femoral (6.22±0.16 vs 5.29±0.14mm, P=0.001) diameters than females. A significant interaction (P=0.047) indicated that brachial diameter increased more in response to heat exertion than in males, whereas no sex difference was apparent in femoral diameter change. Males and females had similar baseline brachial flows (♂80.1±11.2 vs ♀57.0±7.09ml/min, P=0.087), but males had larger baseline femoral flows (♂263.0±23.9 vs ♀151.5±18.6 ml/min, P=0.010). No sex differences were apparent in the terms of the increases in brachial or femoral flows. Finally, at baseline males and females had similar skin blood flux (♂22.6±2.7 vs ♀18.3±2.9PU), but males demonstrated larger increases during heat exertion (P=0.029).


Males exhibit larger baseline artery diameters and flows in vessel beds feeding active (femoral) and inactive (brachial) limbs. In response to heat exertion, men and women exhibit similar increases in conduit diameter and flow to active muscle beds (femoral responses). In the inactive forearms, which reflect thermoregulatory responses, females had larger brachial artery diameter changes, but blood flow responses were similar between the sexes and men demonstrated larger increases in skin perfusion. These data indicate that responses to heat exertion differ in the upper and lower limbs, with sex-differences apparent in each of these territories, and at distinct levels of the arterial hierarchy.

This content is only available as a PDF.

Author notes

First author’s contact: [email protected]