The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with candidiasis in chronic renal failure (CRF) and renal transplant (RT) patients. A cross-sectional study was made of 66 patients who were divided into 2 groups: group A (33 patients), RT patients, and group B (33 patients), who had been diagnosed with CRF. Data with respect to demographics, treatment type and duration, clinical laboratory results for blood leucocytes, oral hygiene, and diagnosis of oral candidiasis were collected. Risk factors associated with candidiasis were evaluated. Among the 66 patients, 21 showed microbiologic evidence of oral candidiasis; 12 of these were from the RT group and 9 were from the CRF patients. Children who were renally compromised (RT and CRF) presented a frequency of oral candidiasis of 31.82%, with no difference between study groups. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species from RT and CRF patients. Duration of therapy and oral hygiene were the variables associated with the presence of oral candidiasis.

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