Purpose: To evaluate the changes in mutans streptococci counts in saliva after short term probiotic intervention and its delayed effects on salivary mutans streptococci count. Methods: 40 children in the age group of 12-15 years with medium to high caries activity were randomly divided into Group I Control (plain milk group) and Group II Experimental (probiotic supplemented milk group). Duration of the study was 9 weeks; which was evenly divided into three phases: baseline, intervention and post-treatment period; each phase consisting of three weeks. After baseline period of 3 weeks, children in group I were given plain milk and in group II milk containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus hct 70 for 3 weeks; followed by a 3 weeks follow up period. After every phase saliva samples were collected to estimate salivary mutans streptococci counts. Results: The difference in the post follow up mutans streptococci count of group I and group II, was highly significant with p value < 0.001. In the control group, the difference in the mean salivary baseline, post treatment and post follow up mutans streptococci counts was not statistically significant (p = 0.001). In the experimental probiotic group, the difference in mean salivary baseline, post treatment and post follow up mutans streptococci counts was statistically highly significant ( p = 0.000, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Statistically significant reduction in salivary mutans streptococci counts immediately after consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus hct 70 containing milk suggest a beneficial effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus hct 70 in the prevention of dental caries.

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