Background and Aims: In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. Study design: This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 105 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. Results: In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P < 0.05). The greatest level of reduction in both groups was observed in the second week after the intervention. Moreover, although the reduction was greater in probiotic yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

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