Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system and conventional needle irrigation to eliminate E faecalis in primary molar root canals. Study Design: 60 extracted human primary second molar roots were instrumented up to an apical size .04/35 and randomly divided into two groups; Group 1: conventional needle (n=30) and Group 2: EndoVac (n=30), and four subgroups (two experimental subgroups; (a) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (n=20), (b) ozonated water (OW) + EDTA (n=20), and control groups (c) 5.25% NaOCl (n=10) and (d) saline (n=10). All roots were sterilized and then inoculated with E.faecalis. Before and after final irrigation procedures, root canals were sampled and the grown colony forming units (CFUs) were counted. Data were analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests using a 0.05 significance level. Results: The EndoVac reduced more bacteria than the conventional needle did but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). NaOCl alone or followed by EDTA totally eliminated bacteria. OW + EDTA showed higher reduction of bacteria but could not totally eliminate bacterias. Conclusions: In the context of bacterial elimination, the EndoVac was not significantly better than the conventional needle. Although, there were fewer CFU/mg when using EndoVac, there was not any statistically significant superiority to conventional needle irrigation. An OW+EDTA regimen showed antibacterial effect in the primary molar root canals but it was significantly less effective than NaOCl+EDTA.

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