Objective: To assess the prevalence and dental erosion risk factors in Mexican schoolchildren. Study design: A transversal and analytical study was conducted on 411 children aged 6 to 12 years old in a public primary school of Mexico City. The children's parents answered a standardized questionnaire about their risk factors, and the Smith and Knight index was applied to assess their dental erosion degree. Results: The prevalence of dental erosion was 62%. The odds ratio and X2 tests revealed that probiotic beverage consumption (OR 1.658; CI 95%: 1.106–2.485; p = 0.014), sports beverages (OR: 2.807; CI 95%: 1.129–6.983; p = 0.021), natural juices (OR: 3.344; CI 95%: 1.556–7.184; p = 0.003), fruits and snacks with hot peppers and lemon (OR: 1.594; CI 95%: 1.066–2.382; p = 0.023), and syrups (OR: 1.869; CI 95%: 1.060–3.296; p = 0.029) were all risk factors for dental erosion. Conclusions: This study indicated that a high existence of dental erosion, which mainly affects the primary molars, is related to the frequent consumption of beverages and foods with acidic pH levels.

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