Objective: To observe if dental alterations in premolars are associated with the rupture of the follicle bone crypt caused by a periapical lesion in the predecessor molars. Study design: This is a cross-sectional study. Data collection consisted of the analysis of medical records, a socioeconomic questionnaire, and dental clinical examination. Records from patients with a history of a radiographically visible periapical lesion in lower primary molars submitted to pulp therapy or extraction from a university dental clinic were selected. Successor premolars were clinically evaluated for the presence of enamel development defects, shape alterations, and eruption deviations. The descriptive analysis of data was performed, and Fisher’s exact tests, linear trend chi-square, and the Student’s t-test were applied. Results: Forty-eight permanent teeth were from 36 patients were evaluated in this study, and 20 (41.7%) of the 48 examined premolars showed a radiographic image suggestive of the rupture of the bone crypt. Rupture of the follicle bone crypt was not associated with the occurrence of enamel alterations in premolars (p = 0.418). An association between dental alterations and age over six years at the time of intervention was observed (p = 0.043). Conclusion: The presence of enamel alterations of premolars was not associated with the rupture of the follicle bone crypt caused by a periapical lesion in predecessor molars.

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