Some dental conditions that are presented to the pediatric emergency department need hospital inpatient admission to facilitate supportive care, provide dental treatment and monitor the physiologic state of the child. The decision to treat the pediatric dental patient as an outpatient or inpatient is very important to control the overuse of hospital resources and at the same time not placing the child at the risk of rapid deterioration. However, no available guidelines or validated measures for the correct decision to treat the patient in either inpatient or outpatient care settings that can be used specifically for pediatric dental patients presented to the emergency department. Up to date, the decision of admitting pediatric patients is usually based on the severity of illness that can be measured by using The Pediatric Risk of Admission (PRISA II) Score. This review gives an overview of indications and clinical criteria of hospital inpatient admission of pediatric patients subsequent to traumatic and non-traumatic dental conditions.

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