Objective: YKL-40, a new biomarker of localized inflammation, is secreted by macrophages and regulates inflammation and immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate YKL-40 levels in saliva and compare the level of this mediator in healthy and unhealthy oral cavity. Study design: 80 children (42-girl, 38-boy), aged 6–15 (mean±SD: 9.35±2.08) were included in this cross-sectional study. The children were divided into four groups: Group-I (control, n=20, dmft/DMFT=0), Group-II (n=20, exist of dental caries), Group-III (n=20, exist of advanced dental caries without pulp exposure), and Group-IV (n=20, exist of advanced dental caries with pulp exposure). The dmft/DMFT, dmfs/DMFS, and the number of advanced dental caries according to the ICDAS and pufa/PUFA index were recorded. Saliva was collected and YKL-40 concentrations were measured. Results: The highest level of YKL-40 was obtained in Group IV, followed by Groups III, II, and I, respectively (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation between YKL-40 and the number of caries There were no statistically significant difference in YKL-40 levels in terms of age and gender (p>0.05). Conclusions: The advanced dental caries with pulp exposure may play an important role in the increasing levels of YKL-40 in saliva.

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