Rachmayani, R.; Ningsih, N.S.; Ardiansyah, I.; Yani, L.F.; Rizal, A.M.; Kartadikaria, A.R.; Sari, N.T, and Park, H., 2021. Utilization and linkage of oceanic energy in Natuna Island: A review. In: Lee, J.L.; Suh, K.-S.; Lee, B.; Shin, S., and Lee, J. (eds.), Crisis and Integrated Management for Coastal and Marine Safety. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 114, pp. 599–603. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Natuna Regency is known as the northernmost regency in the Karimata Strait with its abundant captured fisheries up to 104.879,81 tons, oil up to 3.138.143 barrels and natural gas up to 34.772.019 MMBTU in 2019, respectively. Moreover, Natuna is famous for aquaculture fisheries of Napoleon (Cheilinus undulatus) with allowed-export capacity up to 30,000 kg. However, resource development in Natuna is often constrained by poor infrastructure such as limited fish unloading berths and natural gas pipelines, obscure electricity, and inadequate energy resources. Thus, the utilization of resources in Natuna has not been maximized. Currently, Natuna has been partially improved on distribution services through the sea toll and the establishment of the Integrated Marine and Fisheries Centre (SKPT) of the Lampa Strait. To carry out the challenge and manifest the resources in Natuna, researches on marine renewable energy in Natuna have been conducted and revealed significant wave height up to ∼1.5 m, ocean current velocity per year ranged from 0.255 to 0.340 m/s, and thermal gradient's Carnot efficiency up to 0.67. Despite these lacking numbers on ocean currents, waves, and thermal gradients for renewable energy development, this study exhibits that the Natuna region has a great energy potential from wind farm and solar power plant development. There are four recommended sites namely Pulau Tiga, Sabang Mawang, Sedanau Island, and SKPT Natuna as places to develop hybrid renewable energy development from pumped hydro storage system, wind farm, and/or solar power plant. The renewable energy development at these locations will support smart city concept in Natuna.