Thousands of tons of sand are mined as building material in river and creek mouths, leading to water pollution and eventually causing coastal erosion by reducing sediment supply to the littoral system. Mining of beach sand or dredging in rivers, creeks, and estuaries, which occurs in many places around the world, is of great concern for researchers and non-governmental organizations that study impacts of these kinds of activities that adversely affect environmental protection efforts. In India, all along the west coast, indiscriminate sand mining in major and minor rivers and in creeks or estuaries is posing a serious threat to the encironment. As urbanisation and settlements grow rapidly in coastal cities, demand for construction sand exceeds upland supply. Because many fluvial sand deposits in the hinterland are exhausted and due to construction demands for sand, illegal mining continues along estuaries without concern for environmental repercussions. Unfortunately, sand mining can still...

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