Lonard, R.I.; Judd, F.W., and Stalter, R., 2015. Biological flora of coastal dunes and wetlands: Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.

Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC. is a New World warm-temperate, subtropical, and tropical zone, perennial subshrub that is an important species in hypersaline coastal sites. Also known as sea ox-eye, it tolerates salinities ranging from less than 20 ppt to 130 ppt. It occurs in substrates low in organic matter and deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Nearly all reproduction is vegetative from an extensive rhizome system. Populations of this species recover quickly after coverage by wrack. Stands of B. frutescens often dominate the landward border of salt marshes.

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