Palalane, J.; Larson, M.; Hanson, H., and Juízo, D., 2016. Coastal erosion in Mozambique: Governing processes and remedial measures.

Mozambique's 2800-km-long coastline comes with associated vulnerability to coastal erosion, their processes, and resulting evolution. In fact, coastal erosion has been identified as a dominant phenomenon in the Mozambican coastal system. It is driven by a combination of natural processes and anthropogenic actions. Despite the significant vulnerability and the implications to national economic development, very few technical or scientific studies are available about the country. This paper contributes with insights about the erosion of the vast Mozambican coast by analysing the dominant threats to the coast. The analysis is based upon a detailed review of the situation at five locations on the Mozambican coast already experiencing shoreline recession. The study also analyses the existing legal framework and institutional arrangement for coastal planning and management, as well as critical aspects for effective implementation of coastal protection initiatives. Further, historical and current practices in coastal protection are evaluated. In conclusion, coastal erosion due to natural causes will continue to challenge coastal planners and managers in Mozambique, compounded by a lack of planning or poor planning for coastal developments and resulting anthropogenic impacts. Strong coastal retreat rates exceeding 1 m/y have been observed in some places, as compared to 0.4 m/y due to natural causes. To manage coastal erosion in a more integrated way, there is a need to focus on improving the existing legal instruments and the coordination among all the stakeholders, and to increase the knowledge base. There is also a need to disseminate information among decision makers and coastal planners, specifically, that soft coastlines demand soft protection measures, as hard and semihard structures have been prioritised in coastal protection interventions. In addition, the planning for coastal developments should ensure a better integration of environmental, social, and financial components, and always consider the impact of local solutions at wider temporal and spatial scales.

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