Luo, W.; Guo, C.; Wu, T.; Dai, S., and Su, Y., 2016. Numerical simulation of viscous flow field around ships in ballast.

In this study, a numerical method based on the solution of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equation was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance (wave pattern, limiting streamlines, nominal wake, and axial velocity contours) of the hull of a Korean Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering container ship under in-ballast and design conditions. The results obtained under the design conditions were validated against model test data, and good agreement was observed between the computational and experimental fluid dynamics results. Numerical calculations were performed under the in-ballast condition using the same method. The results indicated that the bulbous bow protruded above the surface of the water and generated high wave cresting at the front of the bulbous bow and high wave troughs at the rear, causing significant variations in the flow fields. Additionally, calculations revealed that when the ship was in ballast, its resistance was poor because of a 1.069° trim by the stern.

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