Lee, J.-S.; Son, D.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Myeong, H.-H.; Cho, J.-S.; Lee, J.-C.; Lee, J.-Y.; Park, C.-S., and Kim, J.-W., 2020. Canonical correspondence analysis ordinations and competitor, stress tolerator, and ruderal strategies of coastal dune plants in South Korea. Journal of Coastal Research, 36(3), 528–535. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
The distribution of plant communities in the sand dunes of the SW coasts of South Korea was studied, along with environmental factors and plant traits, by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The competitor, stress tolerator, and ruderal (CSR) ecological strategies were also evaluated. The coastal sand dune plants were classified into two plant trait groups in the CCA biplot diagram. First, vegetation was correlated with leaf dry weight, canopy height, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, and lateral spread. Second, it was correlated with the flowering period and flowering start. Coastal sand dune plants were classified into three soil factor groups in axes 1 and 2 of the CCA biplot diagram. First, the vegetation was correlated with total nitrogen (T-N), K+, Silt, Mg2+, Na+, and clay contents. Second, it was correlated with Ca2+. Third, it was correlated with the sand contents. To elucidate the relative significance of competition, stress, and disturbance in the distribution process of plant communities, the CSR distribution model was adopted. Many coastal plants (12 species) showed competitor-ruderal/competitor-stress-tolerant-ruderal strategies: Artemisia fukudo, Atriplex gmelinii, Carex kobomugi, Calystegia soldanella, Digitaria ciliaris, Linaria japonica, Messerschmidia sibirica, Oenothera bieenis, Salicornia europaea, Salsola komarovii, Suaeda glauca, and Suaeda maritima. The four species with stress-tolerant-competitor/competitor-stress-tolerant-ruderal strategies were Carex pumila, Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii, Limonium tetragonum, and Zoysia sinica. Conyza canadensis, Ischaemum anthephoroides, Phragmites communis, and Vitex rotundifolia displayed competitor/stress-tolerant-competitor, competitor-ruderal, stress-tolerant-competitor, and C/SC strategies, respectively. The differences in distribution and restoration patterns of the CCA diagrams and CSR triangles may be attributable to different adaptions of plant traits or soil factors.