Black, K.P.; Kulkarni, K.B.; Naik, G.B.; Naik, M., and Mathew, J., 2021. Improving training wall orientation at river and estuary entrances. Journal of Coastal Research, 37(3), 484–493. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

Natural river and estuary entrances adjust in response to the prevailing sedimentary and hydrodynamic environment. In India, during the monsoon rains, the ebb jet can be very large, firing water and sediments along a variable orientation to create the associated ebb deltas. However, once the entrance is trained onto a fixed alignment, this powerful jet “pump” can have adverse impacts. Due to downdrift erosion caused by the entrance training walls at the Old Mangalore Port (Karnataka, west coast of India), the breakwater was modified to reorient the ebb jet in the direction of the longshore drift. The goal was to beneficially use the natural pumping action to drive sand across the entrance without mechanical assistance. Three years of monitoring revealed improvements in downdrift beaches and navigational safety, while maintenance dredging has ceased. The entrance region has deepened by 854,166 m3 after reorienting the ebb jet over the period from October 2017 to February 2020. In contrast, the entrance shoaled by 160,305 m3 over the period from September 2008 to October 2017. The results are relevant to river and estuary entrances with moderate to strong river flows and/or tidal prism.

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