Hayek, M.; Salgues, M.; Souche, J.-C.; De Weerdt, K., and Pioch, S., 2023. How to improve the bioreceptivity of concrete infrastructure used in marine ecosystems? Literature review for mechanisms, key factors, and colonization effects. Journal of Coastal Research, 39(3), 553–568. Charlotte (North Carolina), ISSN 0749-0208.

With 39,400 km2 of coastal and marine areas artificialized and an increasing demand due to the growing global population—9 billion by 2050—it has become necessary to find ways to mitigate futures constructions impacts on biodiversity. This study explores how civil engineering can take further technical measures to enhance marine biodiversity, in a real and valuable “win-win” strategy. The global aim is to integrate eco-engineering practices within coastal projects and include ecological targets (e.g., the diversity and speed of biological colonization) early, at the project design stage, with the same level efforts for technical, social, and economic studies. Concrete is the most useful material for coastal infrastructure construction. Therefore, enhance its positive impact on colonization that is by far one of the key points for developers and coastal managers. To this end, the latest research regarding the bioreceptivity of concrete is reviewed, focusing on the characteristics of the marine environment that affect the colonization of concrete and the organisms involved. From this base of publications, the intrinsic and environmental parameters that can influence the intrinsic and the extrinsic bioreceptivity of concrete have been updated, specifically operating the link with the mechanisms leading to the colonization of concrete and biofilm formation, which hasn't been done before. Based on the persistence of their significant effect (after 78 days of immersion in seawater), the intrinsic parameters that support greater biocolonization are classified from more to less effective in the following order: surface roughness (190%) > chemical composition (slag cement instead Portland cement) (136%) > chemical composition (presence of formwork oil) (106%). Lastly, both the ecological effect and the positive and negative effects of biofilm formation on the durability of concrete were analysed to provide clear and operational results for future concrete coastal construction implementation for decision makers.

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