Seabirds and freshwater bird species have increasingly colonised urbanised landscapes. However, there have been few multispecies studies of the ecological impacts of shoreline development and nonriverine features on waterbird habitation and conservation. This article examines the relationship between waterbird foraging presence and associations and landscape variation of the Rivers Clyde and Kelvin in Glasgow, Scotland. Fifteen species were observed over the period September 2003 to September 2004. The dependent variables were the 15 recorded waterbird species. The independent variables were river width, depth, and flow speed; riverbank and nearby landscape features; and human presence. The results showed that the impact of the independent variables varied seasonally with stronger impacts on bird distribution in the summer than during the winter. River depth was more important than width or flow. Gulls favoured grass and grass–tree areas and had the strongest associations with human presence and nonriverine environments. Concrete pavements were common foraging areas. Other waterbirds favoured shrub–undergrowth associations and were rarer in nonriverine areas. Seasonal changes in vegetation appeared to be important for nongull species. Therefore, the development of mixed riverbank landscapes, including built features, dense vegetation, and open grass, with mixed human presence may offer an effective conservation strategy for waterbirds.

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