Van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Andrieu, V.; Cliquet, D.; Authemayou, C.; Le Roy, P., and Renouf, J.C., 0000. Sea ice and the Middle to Recent Quaternary: Marine highstands in Western Europe.

This study analyzes the raised beaches of less than 700 kilo annum (ka) above present sea level along the English Channel, which are associated with negative anomalies in δ18O and evidence for anchor ice. The dated coastal events were compared in terms of recent storminess, sea-ice extents, and permafrost with regional paleoclimates. In western France, late Eemian and early interstadial highstands (HSs) indicate an extended annual sea-ice duration during early transgressions, with orbitally forced cold winters and a still-cool Southern Ocean. During regressions, storminess developed with a still-warm intertropical ocean but Arctic cooling. The Northern Atlantic ice sheets starved during early stadials, with aridity because of the seasonal sea-ice extent. (1) A delayed sea-level drop resulted from some ice storage in permafrost and sea ice, which caused depleted δ18O seawater (δ18Osw) values and limited ice caps. (2) The large ice sheets along the Northern Atlantic spread progressively and were delayed until marine isotope stage 4 (MIS 4). Their development resulted from summer precipitation rise caused by the cyclic restoration of thermohaline circulation during Dansgaard–Oechger (DO) events alternating with multiyear sea-ice cover. This led to a more unstable North Atlantic Current, which was repeatedly destabilized. (3) Early glacial storage partly or fully vanished during early DO or interstadial HSs, with climate conditions close to those of the present day.

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