Choi, K.Y., Kim, S.H., Hong, G.H., Kim, C.J., 2013. Assessment of the metal contamination and potential toxicity of sediment from artificially closed system port in South Korea.
A study was performed to determine the total and potentially bioavailable heavy metal concentrations in sediments from the Port of Incheon, and the differences in contamination for each pier were identified. Metal enrichment factors (EF) suggested that contamination with Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg was occurring at the port. Ni, Cu and Zn concentrations exceeded the effect range low level at most sampling sites according to U.S. NOAA sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). The potential toxicity of metals was determined by 1M HCl extractions. Large portions of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were present as potentially bioavailable fractions (1M HCl extractable fractions) and they were introduced from anthropogenic activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in order to assess the sources of contamination of the sediment and the influence of anthropogenic activities on sediment quality. Two PCA factors were obtained for identifying the sampling sites affected by anthropogenic activities. Patterns of sediment contamination at each pier were classified, and the results showed that Cu–Zn–Cd–Pb–Hg and Ni were the main components.