Ishikawa, T.; Komine, T.; Aoki, S.I., and Okabe, T., 2014. Characteristics of rip current drowning on the shores of Japan.

The characteristics of rip current drowning on the shores of Japan was investigated using the analysis of the lifesaver's rescue reports of 2013 and field observations of some beaches. Although the necessary rescue equipment and the water safety information such as signboards were mostly prepared, a large amount of rip current drowning occurred. On most re-occurring rip current drowning beaches, there are permanent rips and fixed rips associated with the characteristic of topography and the coastal structures at most beaches under the relatively high wave condition. Especially, in the case lifesavers cannot determine the swimming areas, swimming areas are generally determined by the local regulations from local governments and shop owners on most beaches. The most important outbreak factor regarding the rip current drowning is the human factor such as the management problems and coastal structures, which was concluded.

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