Borba, T.A.C., and Rollnic, M., 2016. Runoff quantification on Amazonian Estuary based on hydrodynamic model. In: Vila-Concejo, A.; Bruce, E.; Kennedy, D.M., and McCarroll, R.J. (eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Coastal Symposium (Sydney, Australia). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 75, pp. 43–47. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
The Amazonian Estuary encompasses a large number of water bodies and four of the 20 largest rivers of the world. It is composed of two conected branches: the Amazon River Estuary and Para River Estuary. This research aims to quantify the net runoff through these branches during wet and dry season based on 2D numerical model. D-Flow Flexible Mesh was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of Amazonian Estuary. The domain encompasses rivers and channels of Amazonian Estuary and floodplain area. The domain covers ≈700 km along the coastline and 145 km offshore. It reaches 716 km upstream through the Amazon River and 430 km through Para/Tocantins River. Curvilinear meshes combined with triangles and 1D channels networks were used during the mesh definition. The net discharge was calculated for one tidal cycle. Five cross-sections were defined to quantify the estuary runoff: four on the Amazon River Estuary and one Para River Estuary. The lateral cross-sections on Amazon River Estuary present net runoff of magnitude of almost 107 m3 for wet season and 106 m3 for dry season, both in downstream direction. The central cross-sections on Amazon River Estuary present runoff of magnitude of 104 and 105 m3 for wet season, both in upstream direction. The cross-section on Para River Estuary presents runoff of magnitude of 106 m3. The Pará River Estuary presents magnitude near to that presented by Amazon River Estuary, making it an important channel of matter transport from continent to ocean.