Hart, D.E.; Pitman, S.J., and Byun, D.-S., 2020. Earthquakes, coasts and climate change? Multi-hazard opportunities, challenges and approaches for coastal cities. In: Malvárez, G. and Navas, F. (eds.), Global Coastal Issues of 2020. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 95, pp. 819–823. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Aotearoa New Zealand (ANZ) experienced several major earthquake disruptions to coastal environments between 2010 and 2016, including to the natural and built environment components of coastal cities and rural centers. Key places affected included Ōtautahi Christchurch city and the town of Kaikōura. Lessons learned about coastal environment/ earthquake interactions are useful in transforming our approach to adapting to climate change in coastal settlements. This paper reviews highlights of the temporary and lasting effects of the recent ANZ ‘coastal quake’ events in sand beach, mixed sand and gravel beach, estuary, delta and lagoon settings. Key topics include sediment budgets and beach states, estuary stability, ecosystem translation and squeeze, liquefaction, and effects of relative sea level change. Findings include the potential robustness of open coast beach systems to both uplift and subsidence, the relative sensitivity of estuarine and delta city hydraulics and ecosystem resilience once built environment boundaries and interactions are considered, and the potential for coastal hazard interactions and cascades with both negative and positive consequences. Analysis of these earthquake events can be used, not only to ‘build back better’, but also to underpin a shift in approaches to coastal hazards and climate change challenges, via a multi-hazards perspective.