We examined the effects of elm selection, explant source and media composition on growth of the Dutch elm disease (DED) fungus Ophiostoma ulmi on callus cultures. Calluses were generated from leaf and stem tissue of an American elm (Ulmus Americana L.) seedling (A), susceptible to the disease; an American elm selection 8630, resistant to the disease; and a Siberian elm (U. pumila L.) seedling, also resistant to DED. Calluses were generated on modified Murashige-Skoog (MMS) medium, either with (MMSC) or without coconut milk. Explant source did not affect the fungal growth rate on the callus. Rate of O. ulmi growth on American elm A callus was similar on both media; on Siberian and 8630, fungal growth rate was more rapid on callus cultured on MMS than on MMSC. However, in the absence of callus tissue, O. ulmi growth on MMSC medium was more than five times as rapid as it was on MMS. We observed significant interactions between explant source and selection, and between medium and selection. Fungal growth was always more rapid on American A, and American 8630 then on Siberian. Scanning electron microscopy revealed heavy fungal sporulation on American A, slight on Siberian and none on American 8630. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the secondary metabolic profiles were distinguishable for callus tissue versus explant tissue, but were similar for calli generated from different explant sources.
Portion of this work was funded by a grant from the Horticultural Research Institute, 1250 I St. N.W., Suite 500. Washington, DC 20005. The authors thank Dr. T.L. Graham and Mrs. Jacquelyn Thomas for their assistance in experimental work.
2Plant Physiologist, Plant Pathologist, and Microbiologist, resp.
3Microbiologist, USDA-FS, N.E. Forest Experiment Station, Delaware. OH.