The largest of the stick insects, Megacrania alpheus Westwood, has paired thoracic glands which produce five volatile, protective chemicals. In response to irritation, five special odor compounds are ejected of which actinidine is identified as the major constituent by IR, NMR, and GC-Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Different juvenile stages contain varying amounts of actinidine. Few nymphs deprived of actinidine survive to maturity because of high incidence of mortality from natural predators.

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