Although chemical pesticides are still the principle component of pest control efforts, microbial control agents are increasingly becoming useful in IPM programs. This paper reviews the mechanisms through which pathogens could be used in such programs. In general the strategies of introduction (inoculative or inundative), augmentation, and conservation, recognized for achieving biological control of pests with parasites and predators, are applicable to insect pathogens. Examples of these strategies for microbial control agents and their integration with cultural and chemical control methods in agricultural systems and public health programs are presented.

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