Interactions between herbivorous insects, plant pathogenic fungi, and their host plants are of increasing interest in agricultural and applied ecological contexts. Herbivorous insects and plant pathogenic fungi cause agricultural losses by reducing yields and seed quality (Stoddard et al. 2010, Field Crops Res. 115: 308–318). Co-occurrence of both organisms can have synergistic, additive or inhibitory effects on host plants (Shikano et al. 2017, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 55: 313–331). Additionally, phytopathogens can influence host plant quality and, consequently, modify insects' feeding behavior and distribution (Shikano et al. 2017). Understanding interactions between insect herbivores and phytopathogens can improve ecological pest management.

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was chosen to study the potential interaction between a phytopathogen and insect pest because previous research showed that Lygus spp. and chocolate spot, caused by Botrytis spp., often co-occurred in faba bean fields (Kaur et al. 2018, Can. J. Plant Sci. 99: 56–66). Lygus spp....

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