The historic development of integrated pest management (IPM) approaches or programs for the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are discussed. Initial attempts to eradicate this species in the U.S. failed. In the early 1980′s site-specific, goal-oriented approaches were developed by adapting IPM concepts to fire ant problem areas. These programs have evolved over time and, more recently, the concept of managing fire ants on an area-wide or community-wide basis has been demonstrated. Currently, efforts are being made to investigate biological control agents to develop biologically-intensive IPM programs.

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Author notes

1Presented as part of the IPM in Urban Entomology Symposium during the 2001 Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America in San Diego, CA.