Twenty-five species of sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are recorded from Georgia, USA. One of these species is currently recognized as 2 distinct subspecies, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus L.) and head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) of humans. Gray squirrels, southern flying squirrels, humans, and domestic cattle are parasitized by relatively rich faunas of sucking lice in Georgia with 3 characteristic species/subspecies recorded from each of these hosts within the state. Despite some previously published erroneous host-louse records, most species of sucking lice are host specific in Georgia. Sucking lice have been recorded from domestic hogs, cattle, equines, goats, and dogs in Georgia, and some of these lice can cause veterinary problems. The head louse is common in Georgia, especially in school children. The crab/pubic louse [Pthirus pubis (L.)] also appears to be widespread in the state. We report only one verified record of the body louse from Georgia, but we suspect this louse persists focally in the state. In nature, the body louse is a vector of at least 3 important pathogens: those that cause epidemic typhus, louse-borne relapsing fever, and trench fever. None of these diseases are currently known to be circulating in human populations in Georgia, but “urban” trench fever could be present in some homeless populations. Flying squirrels and their lice are known reservoirs and vectors, respectively, of an enzootic cycle of Rickettsia prowazekii da Rocha-Lima which can infect humans causing sporadic epidemic typhus. Taxonomically, we correct the description date for 2 anopluran species, Polyplax serrata (Burmesiter) and Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister), from 1839 to 1838.

Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, hematophagous, permanent ectoparasites of placental mammals throughout the world, and more than 550 valid species have been described (Durden and Musser 1994). In North America, 77 native or established species of sucking lice have been recorded (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Rausch 2007) with many of these species being host-specific parasites of various species of rodents (Kim et al. 1986). However, humans, livestock animals, pets, and certain species of native moles, carnivores (including seals and sea lions), ungulates, rabbits, and hares are also known to be parasitized by characteristic species of sucking lice (Kim et al. 1986, Durden 2001).

Although surveys of sucking lice in the adjoining states of South Carolina (Reeves et al. 2004) and Tennessee (Durden et al. 1997) have been completed, a survey of the sucking lice of Georgia, USA, has not previously been undertaken. Some of the earlier reports of sucking lice in Georgia were included in projects to assess ectoparasites (mainly fleas) of peridomestic rats [Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and Rattus rattus (L.)] in Savannah, Atlanta, and selected counties in the southwestern part of the state in connection with murine typhus epidemiology and control programs starting in the 1930s (Fox 1931, Cole and Koepke 1947, Ludwig and Nicholson 1947, Morlan 1947, 1952, Harkema and Kartman 1948, Hill and Morlan 1948, Morlan and Hines 1951, Morlan and Utterback 1952, Mohr and Smith 1957, Smith 1957, Smith and Love 1958, Love and Smith 1960). Unfortunately, several atypical host associations were reported for various species of sucking lice in the Morlan (1952) study. Available louse specimens from that study were reexamined during this study and Morlan’s louse identifications were confirmed in those cases. Therefore, it seems most likely that there was some cross contamination of ectoparasite collections between host individuals/species in the Morlan (1952) study perhaps resulting from reuse of cloth bags for different host individuals and species with incomplete removal of loose ectoparasites from the bags between hosts. Although we include Morlan’s host-Anoplura records in this paper, we strongly suspect that some of them are erroneous. In the Georgia Host-Anoplura List, we show atypical or suspected erroneous host records in regular font and principal host records in bold font.

Anoplura collections in the U.S. National Museum (Smithsonian Institution), Georgia Southern University Insect Collection, University of Georgia Collection of Arthropods, and L. A. Durden Collection (which includes the Harry D. Pratt Collection and some Harvey B. Morlan specimens) were screened for specimens from Georgia. In addition, exhaustive literature searches were undertaken for records of Anoplura for Georgia. Several records emanated from mammal-ectoparasite studies in southern Georgia undertaken or overseen by Sturgis McKeever and Frank E. French from the 1970s through the 1990s and by Lance A. Durden starting in 1992.

In the lists that follow, anopluran species are arranged alphabetically by Latin name, followed by the accepted Entomological Society of America common name (if any), and then by the family designation. For each louse species, records are arranged alphabetically by county and then alphabetically by town or other location (if known). If more than one collection is reported from the same site, the records are listed chronologically. Following county records, other records (e.g., “southern Georgia,” “southwestern Georgia” or “unspecified county”) are listed. For each reported collection, either a literature citation or a collection designation is provided. The following collection acronyms are used: GSU = Georgia Southern University Insect Collection,

LAD = Lance A. Durden Slide Collection, L = Lance A. Durden Alcoholic Collection, UGCA = University of Georgia Collection of Arthropods, USNM = U.S. National Museum (Smithsonian Institution).

Where available, accession numbers are appended to the collection acronyms. In the collection lists, standard male (♂) and female (♀) symbols are used to denote sexes of louse specimens, and N is used to designate one or more nymphs. Host names [Latin name, author(s) and common name] are listed in full following Wilson and Reeder (2005) in the Host-Sucking Louse List. In the Discussion section, a brief overview of the sucking louse fauna of Georgia is provided followed by consideration of the medical and veterinary importance of sucking lice in the state.

HOST AND GEOGRAPHICAL RECORDS OF ANOPLURA SPECIES RECORDED IN GEORGIA

Enderleinellus longiceps Kellogg and Ferris, 1915 (Family Enderleinellidae)

Brooks Co.: ex S. carolinensis (Kim et al. 1986)

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 1♀ ex “squirrel,” 20 Jan. 1984 (GSU).

Coffee Co.: Broxton Rocks Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 1♂, 3♀ ex 1 S. carolinensis, 22 Feb. 1996 (L1173).

Thomas Co.: Thomasville, 1♀ ex S. carolinensis (Kim 1966, Kim et al. 1986).

Southeastern Georgia: (Bulloch, Chatham, Coffee, Liberty and Screven counties), ex S. carolinensis (Durden et al. 2004a).

Notes: This small louse parasitizes the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, and fox squirrel, Sciurus niger L., in North America (Durden and Musser 1994) although the latter host association has not yet been recorded in Georgia. It can be a common ectoparasite of S. carolinensis in some other eastern states (Durden 1980) but, based on available collection records, it appears to be an uncommon associate of this host in Georgia. Durden et al. (2004a) reported only 1 of 67 (1%) examined S. carolinensis to be infested by E. longiceps. The infested squirrel was from Coffee Co.

Haematopinus asini (Linnaeus, 1758) (horse sucking louse) (Family Haematopinidae)

Ware Co.: Waycross, 1♀ ex E. caballus, 25 Jan. 1947 (Stimie and van der Merwe 1968, Kim et al. 1986).

Unspecified Co.: ex equines (Cooperrider 1952).

Notes: Haematopinus asini is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of equines, especially domestic horses and donkeys (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994). It is probably more common and widespread in Georgia than the single collection reported here suggests.

Haematopinus eurysternus Denny, 1842 (shortnosed cattle louse) (Family Haematopinidae)

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 100s of specimens ex B. taurus, 11 Jan. 1985 (GSU).

Unspecified Co.: ex B. taurus (Cooperrider 1952, Kim et al. 1986).

Notes: This louse is a widespread ectoparasite of domestic cattle throughout the temperate and cooler climatic zones of the world including most of the United States (Kim et al. 1986). Haematopinus eurysternus is probably more widespread on cattle in Georgia than the above records suggest.

Haematopinus suis (Linnaeus, 1758) (hog louse) (Family Haematopinidae)

Baker Co.: near Newton, Pineland Plantation, 61♂, 74♀, 181N, many ova ex 16 S. scrota (feral), 7 - 8 April 2012 (L3514 - 3528, L3530).

Bryan Co.: Fort Stewart, 2♀ ex S. scrofa (feral), 21 Nov. 2005 (L3327); 3♂, 5♀ ex S. scrofa (feral), 13 Feb. 2006 (L3330); ex S. scrofa (feral) (Smith et al. 1982).

Bulloch Co.: ex S. scrofa (Kim et al. 1986); 2N ex S. scrofa, 4 Aug. 1970 (GSU); 1N ex S. scrofa, 6 Jan. 1977 (GSU); 1♀ ex S. scrofa, 4 Dec. 1984 (GSU).

Camden Co.: Cumberland Island, 4♀, 4N ex S. scrofa (feral), 6 Jun. 1974 (L1578); ex S. scrofa (feral) (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Chatham Co.: Ossabaw Island, ex S. scrofa (feral) (Smith et al. 1982). Unspecified locality, ex S. scrofa (Kim et al. 1986).

Clarke Co.: Athens, 1♂, 1N ex S. scrofa, 21 May 1953 (UGCA); 1♀ ex S. scrofa, “spring” 1953 (LAD), ex S. scrofa (Kim et al. 1986). Athens, University of Georgia swine farm, 1♀, 1N ex S. scrofa, 25 Oct. 1996 (UGCA). Athens, Whitehall Forest, 1♀ ex S. scrofa, 17 Sep. 1973 (UGCA).

Clinch Co.: Argyle, 1♂ ex U. americanus, 8 Jun. 1939 (LAD).

Dodge Co.: Rhine, 2♂ ex S. scrofa, 14 Nov. 1970 (UGCA).

Liberty Co.: Fort Stewart, ex S. scrofa (feral) (Smith et al. 1982). St. Catherines Island, ex S. scrofa (feral) (Wilson and Durden 2003), 2♂, 2♀, 1N ex S. scrofa (feral), 3 Mar. 1984 (GSU).

Screven Co.: Sylvania, 1♂ ex S. scrofa, 17 Jul. 1970 (LAD).

Telfair Co.: Horse Creek Wildlife Management Area, ex S. scrofa (feral) (Smith et al. 1982).

Toombs Co.: 3 specimens ex unspecified host, 27 Oct. 1958 (UGCA); 1♂, 1♀ ex S. scrofa, 19 Jul. 1970 (GSU).

Turner Co.: Ashburn, 1♂ ex S. scrofa, 29 Jul. 1970 (GSU).

Wilcox Co.: 1♀ ex S. scrofa, 10 Apr. 1963 (GSU); 1♂ ex unspecified host, 15 Apr. 1963 (GSU).

Wilkinson Co.: Napier Plantation, ex S. scrofa (feral) (Smith et al. 1982).

Unspecified Co.: ex S. scrofa (Cooperrider 1952).

Notes: A host-specific ectoparasite of domestic and feral hogs (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994), H. suis is evidently widespread and common in Georgia, especially on feral hogs. The specimens from Baker Co. represent a fraction of the lice present on the examined hogs and most individual hosts examined in that county were infested by hundreds or thousands of lice. The single specimen recorded from a black bear, Ursus americanus Pallas, in Georgia represents an atypical host association.

Hoplopleura erratica (Osborn, 1896) (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Fulton Co.: Atlanta, 2♂, 2♀ ex T. striatus, 5 Nov. 1956 (LAD), ex T. striatus (Kim et al. 1986).

Notes: Hoplopleura erratica is a host-specific parasite of the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus (L.) as documented by Durden and Musser (1994). This rodent does not occur in the coastal plain of Georgia (Wilson and Reeder 2005), so the Atlanta record listed above probably reflects the approximate southern most extent of the range of H. erratica within the state. Presumably, this louse also parasitizes T. striatus throughout the range of this rodent in northern Georgia. In neighboring Tennessee, this louse can be an abundant ectoparasite of the eastern chipmunk (Durden 1983, Durden et al. 1997).

Hoplopleura hesperomydis (Osborn, 1891) (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Brooks Co.: Kim et al. (1986).

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 1♂, 5♀,1N ex 2 P. gossypinus, Mar. 2000 (L2725, L2734); 1♀ ex P. gossypinus, 17 Oct. 2002 (L2907). 7 miles north of Statesboro, 1♂, 1♀ ex P. gossypinus, 31 Jan. 1969. Unspecified locality, 1N ex P. gossypinus, 26 Feb. 1982 (GSU); 4♀, 1N ex 2 P. gossypinus, 20 Jun. 1997, (L1338, L1339).

Candler Co.: Metter, R. G. Daniell Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 2N ex 2 P. polionotus, Jan/Feb 2003, (L3151, L3158) (Nims 2005, Nims et al. 2008).

Charlton Co.: 2 miles west of Folkston, 1♂, 2♀ ex P. gossypinus, 23 Feb. 1936 (Kim et al. 1986).

Coffee Co.: Broxton Rocks Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 1♂, 5♀, 1N ex 5 P. gossypinus, 1995 - 1996 (L1067, L1120, L1201, L1213, L1229).

Columbia Co.: Mistletoe State Park, 1♂, 1♀, 1N ex Peromyscus sp., 17 Dec. 1998 (L2281).

Decatur Co.: 1♀ ex P. polionotus, 23 Jan. 1947 (LAD), unspecified host (Kim et al. (1986).

Ware Co.: 1♂, 2♀ ex P. gossypinus, 27 Apr. 1933, (Kim 1965, Kim et al. 1986).

Southeastern Georgia: (Bulloch, Candler, Chatham, Coffee and Screven counties): 41♂ 150♀, 8N ex 25 P. gossypinus (Durden et al. 2004b); 1♂, 5♀, 2N ex 2 O. nuttalli (Durden et al. 2004b).

Southwestern Georgia: (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties), 107 specimens ex 13 P. gossypinus, 11 specimens ex P. polionotus (Morlan 1952); (Baker, Grady, Mitchell and Thomas counties), 20 specimens ex S. hispidus (Smith and Love 1958).

Unspecified Co.: ex O. nuttalli (Durden 2008); Fort Stewart (Kim et al. 1986).

Notes: This louse is widespread in North America as an ectoparasite of several species of mice belonging to the genus Peromyscus and of the golden mouse, Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan) as detailed by Durden and Musser (1994). The Georgia records listed above reinforce these host associations. Morlan (1952) recorded H. hesperomydis from 13 of 249 (5%) Peromyscus gossypinus (LeConte) (mean per infested host = 8.2) and from 1 of 243 (>1%) Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner) (mean per infested host = 11.0) in southwestern Georgia. Hu et al. (2000) reported 1 of 50 (2%) Peromyscus spp. [P. gossypinus and P. maniculatus (Wagner) combined — some juveniles could not be identified to species] to be infested by a mean of 3.0 H. hesperomydis per infested mouse in Piedmont Georgia (near Augusta). In southeastern Georgia, Durden et al. (2004b) recorded 25 of 202 (12%) P. gossypinus to be infested by a mean of 8.0 H. hesperomydis per infested host and 2 of 46 (4%) O. nuttalli to be infested by a mean of 4.0 H. hesperomydis per infested host. Nims et al. (2008) recorded 2 of 66 (3%) P. polionotus to be infested by a mean of 1.0 H. hesperomydis per infested host at a site in Candler Co. and 0 of 46 (0%) to be infested by this louse at a site in Bulloch Co.

Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, 1916 (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Baker Co.: Newton, 1♂, 1N ex S. hispidus, “summer” 1948 (LAD).

Bleckley Co.: 32.397N, 83.347W, 24♂, 49♀, 56N ex 14 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009). Unspecified locality, 41♂, 92♀, 107N ex 5 S. hispidus, Sep. 1992 (L470, L480, L482, L484, L485).

Brooks Co.: 1♂, 2♀, 6N ex D. virginiana, 3 Jun. 1947 (LAD); ex S. hispidus (Kim et al. 1986).

Bulloch Co.: Clito, ex S. hispidus (Henry 1970). Cypress Lake Rd., 8♂, 15♀, 18N ex S. hispidus, 31 May 2007 (L3402); 1♀, 1N ex 2 S. hispidus, 11 - 12 Jun. 2008 (L3412, L3414). Denmark, 6N ex S. hispidus, 24 February 1999 (L2356). Marsh Hunting Preserve, 1♂, 3♀, 1N ex 2 S. hispidus, Feb. 2007, (L3384, L3397); 15♂, 22♀, 141N ex 9 S. hispidus, Jun.-Aug. 2003, (L3259, L3261, L3262, L3264 - 3269). Statesboro, ex S. hispidus (Henry 1970), 1♀ ex S. hispidus, 11 Nov. 1970 (GSU); 1♂, 1♀ ex S. hispidus, 7 Jul. 1971 (GSU); 1♂ ex D. virginiana, 11 Jul. 1971 (GSU); 1♀, 1N ex S. hispidus, 4 May 1972 (GSU); 1♂, 2N ex S. hispidus, 18 May 1976 (GSU); 1♀, 1N ex S. hispidus, 4 Jun. 1976 (GSU); 1♂, 1♀, 1N, ex unspecified host, 8 May 1985 (GSU); 1♀, 2N ex S. hispidus, 30 May 1991 (L210); 3♂, 8♀, 7N ex S. hispidus, 4 May 1997 (L1332); 1♂, 1♀, 1N ex unspecified host, Feb. 1979 (GSU). Statesboro, Tyson’s Barn area, 1♂, 2♀, 1N ex S. hispidus, 8 May 1975 (GSU). Middleground Tract, 2003, 13♂, 8♀, 113N ex 8 S. hispidus (Nims 2005); 7 miles north of Statesboro, Altman’s Wood, 1♂, 1♀, 1N ex S. hispidus, 29 Jan. 1969 (GSU, LAD). 32.444N, 81.783W, 25♂, 46♀, 150N ex 47 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009).

Burke Co.: 32.985N, 81.978W, 6♂, 7♀, 17N ex 7 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009).

Candler Co.: 32.318N, 82.074W, 5♂, 17♀, 6N ex 14 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009).

Camden Co.: Cumberland Island, ex S. hispidus (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Chatham Co.: Savannah, 1♀ ex S. hispidus, 10 Jul. 1946 (LAD); 2N ex unspecified host, unspecified date (GSU). Savannah, City Dump, 1♀ ex S. hispidus, 9 Jul. 1948 (LAD). Skidaway Island, 3♂, 25♀, 14N ex 3 S. hispidus, 13 - 14 Jan. 1999 (L2284 - 2286). 31.942N, 81.035W, 6♂, 29♀, 17N ex 10 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009). Unspecified locality, ex S. hispidus (Kim et al. 1986).

Columbia Co.: Augusta, 2♂, 4♀, 4N ex 3 S. hispidus, Sep.-Oct. 1992 (L488–L490). Augusta, Fort Gordon (previously, Camp Gordon), 592 specimens ex 32 S. hispidus (Harkema and Kartman 1948); Mistletoe State Park, 1♂, 2♀, 1N ex 3 S. hispidus, 19 Nov. 1998 (L2248 - 2250). 33.562N, 82.175, 2♂, 5♀, 4N ex 15 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009).

Decatur Co.: Bainbridge (30.909N, 84.583W), 5♀, 6N ex 2 S. hispidus, Jul. 1997 (L1343, L1344) (Aviles 2009).

Evans Co.: Fort Stewart (areas E-6 and E-7), ex S. hispidus (Henry 1970).

Glynn Co.: Sea Island, 1♂, 2♀ ex S. hispidus, 21 Feb. 1952 (LAD); 4♀, 4N ex S. hispidus, 22 Feb. 1952; unspecified host (Kim et al. 1986); 31.170N, 81.499W, 1♂, 1♀, 1N ex 5 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009); ex S. hispidus (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Grady Co.: 1♂, 2♀, 1N ex 2 S. hispidus, 3 Jan. 1947 (LAD), 1♀ ex S. hispidus, 7 Jan. 1947 (LAD), 5♂, 7♀, 2N ex 6 S. hispidus, 8 Jan. 1947 (LAD), ex S. hispidus, Kim et al. (1986); 1♂, 1♀, unspecified host and date (LAD).

Jenkins Co.: Magnolia Springs, ex S. hispidus (Henry 1970), 32.720N, 81.979W, 8♂, 16♀, 63N ex 10 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009).

Lee Co.: ex S. hispidus, Kim et al. (1986).

Lowndes Co.: near Valdosta (30.842N, 83.306W), 1♂, 1♀, 1N ex 1 S. hispidus, 26 Feb. 2007 (L3398) (Aviles 2009).

McIntosh Co.: Sapelo Island, ex 2 S. hispidus, 31 Dec. 1970, 3♂, 4♀ (L1577); 31.374N, 81.499W, 8♂, 13♀, 38N ex 6 S. hispidus (Aviles 2009); ex S. hispidus (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Screven Co.: Near Oilver, ex S. hispidus (Henry 1970). Oliver (32.751N, 81.605W), 3♂, 6♀, 7N ex 3 S. hispidus, 18 Feb. 1999 (L2328, L2336, L2337) (Aviles 2009).

Tattnall Co.: Fort Stewart, 1N ex S. hispidus, 10 Feb. 1970 (L3056) (LAD).

Southeastern Georgia: ex S. hispidus (Henry and McKeever 1971).

Southwestern Georgia: (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties), 10,532 specimens ex 720 S. hispidus, 1 specimen ex P. gossypinus, 1 specimen ex P. polionotus, 1 specimen ex O. palustris, 5 specimens ex N. floridana (Morlan 1952); (Baker, Grady, Mitchell and Thomas counties), 6,340 specimens ex 446 S. hispidus (Smith and Love 1958).

Unspecified Co.: Fort Stewart, 10♂, 3♀ ex S. hispidus, 16 Dec. 1969 (GSU); 2♂, 2♀ ex S. hispidus, 18 Dec. 1969 (GSU).

Notes: The cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, is the true host of this louse and all other host records reported by Morlan (1952) are atypical or suspected to be erroneous. Hoplopleura hirsuta is widespread in Georgia, especially in the southern part of the state which mirrors the abundance of its host in the state (Durden et al. 2012). Harkema and Kartman (1948) recorded 32 of 35 (91%) S. hispidus examined at Fort Gordon (near Augusta) to have a mean of 18.5 H. hirsuta per infested rat. Morlan (1952) recorded H. hirsuta from 720 of 966 (75%) S. hispidus and reported a mean of 14.6 lice per cotton rat in southwestern Georgia. Smith and Love (1958) recorded H. hirsuta from 446 of 529 (84%) S. hispidus and reported a mean of 14.2 lice per cotton rat in essentially the same area as the Morlan (1952) survey but during a dry period (Morlan’s samples were collected during a wet period). Henry (1970) recorded 79% of 405 S. hispidus trapped in southeastern Georgia (Bulloch, Evans, Jenkins and Screven counties combined) to be infested by H. hirsuta (range of 0 - 304 lice per host). The number of H. hirsuta was significantly greater on adult male than on adult female cotton rats and on juvenile male than juvenile female hosts (Henry 1970). Further, louse infestation prevalences and intensities (mean per host) were higher during winter months when compared with summer months. Hu et al. (2000) recorded 3 of 17 (18%) S. hispidus examined in Piedmont Georgia (near Augusta) to be infested by a mean of 1.3 H. hirsuta per infested rat. Nims (2005) recorded 8 of 13 (62%) S. hispidus in Bulloch Co. to have a mean of 18.0 H. hirsuta per infested rat.

Hoplopleura oryzomydis Pratt and Lane, 1951 (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Camden Co.: Cumberland Island, 2♂, 6♀ ex O. palustris, 20 Mar. 1970 (L1576); ex O. palustris (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Chatham Co.: Savannah, Oatland Island, 37♂, 39♀ (Holotype ♂, Allotype ♀, 36 Paratype ♂, 38 Paratype ♀) ex O. palustris, 26 Feb. 1948) (Pratt and Lane 1951, Ferris 1951, Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994) (Type series).

Notes: As documented above, this louse was described based on specimens collected from the marsh rice rat, O. palustris, in Savannah, GA. The Type specimens are deposited in the U.S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution (USNM Type No. 60,412) (Durden and Adams 2005). In North America, H. oryzomydis parasitizes O. palustris mainly in coastal regions from Delaware south to Florida and west to Texas (Kim et al. 1986). Further south, from central America to Venezuela, O. palustris parasitizes other species of Oryzomys and also the related Melanomys caliginosus (Tomes) and Sigmodontomys alfari Allen (see Durden and Musser 1994).

Hoplopleura pacifica Ewing, 1924 (tropical rat louse) (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Chatham Co.: Savannah, ex Rattus sp. (Kim et al. 1986); ex R. norvegicus [louse originally reported as Hoplopleura acanthopus (Burmeister)] (Fox 1931); 60 specimens ex 7,813 Rattus spp. (R. norvegicus and R. rattus combined), 1932 - 1933 (lice originally reported as Hoplopleura sp.) (Cole and Koepke 1947).

Crisp Co.: ex Rattus sp. (Pritchard 1947).

DeKalb Co.: ex Rattus sp. (Pritchard 1947).

Fulton Co.: Atlanta, 2♀ ex R. norvegicus, Dec. 1946 (LAD), ex R. norvegicus (Pritchard 1947), ex Rattus sp. (Pratt and Karp 1953, Kim et al. 1986).

Unspecified Co.: 5 collection locality dots representing 5 different Georgia counties on small map of USA, ex Rattus sp. (Pratt and Karp 1953, Pratt and Good 1954).

Notes: Hoplopleura pacifica parasitizes peridomestic Rattus hosts throughout most of the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world (Durden and Musser 1994). Prior to 1966, many records of H. pacifica from domestic Rattus, including those reported by Pratt and Karp (1953) and Pratt and Good (1954) from the USA were erroneously reported as Hoplopleura oenomydis Ferris, 1921. The latter louse species is an ectoparasite of Oenomys spp. rats in the Afrotropical region (Durden and Musser 1994) and, although H. pacifica and H. oenomydis are morphologically similar, they represent distinct species as documented by Voss (1966) and Johnson (1972). Pritchard (1947) stated that an estimated 5,000 specimens of H. pacifica (reported as H. oenomydis) had been collected from a single R. norvegicus in Atlanta. Interestingly, there are no records of H. pacifica from Georgia since the 1950s. Whether this reflects that this louse is currently scarce in Georgia or that very few peridomestic rats have been surveyed for ectoparasites recently in Georgia, is unknown.

Hoplopleura sciuricola Ferris, 1921 (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Baker Co.: Newton (Kim et al. 1986).

Berrien Co.: Nashville (Kim et al. 1986).

Brooks Co.: 1♂, unspecified host, 3 Jun. 1947 (LAD); unspecified host (Kim et al. 1986).

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 8♂, 21♀, 3N ex 2 S. carolinensis, 15 Oct. 1993 (L742, L743); 1♀ ex S. carolinensis, 22 Mar. 1994 (L813); 1♂, 2♀, 4N ex 4 S. carolinensis, May 1994 (L871, L873, L874, L878); 30♂, 7♀ex S. carolinensis, Jun. 1994 (L879); 5♂, 10♀, 21N ex 32 S. carolinensis, 1995 - 2001 (L1046, L1050, L1161, L1179, L1194, L1195, L1290, L1306, L1308, L1316, L1317, L1321, L1323, L1326 - 1329, L1348, L2452 - 2454, L2585, L2716, L2745, L2746, L2818 - 2823, L2855); 1♂, 1♀ ex S. carolinensis, unspecified date (GSU). Unspecified locality, 7♂, 19♀, 8N ex 6 S. carolinensis, 18 Jan. 1997 (L1293 - 1297, L1299); 1♂ ex unspecified host, 10 Mar. 1982 (GSU).

Chatham Co.: Wormsloe State Historic Site, 3♂, 5♀, 7N ex 2 S. carolinensis, Feb. 1995, (L1021, L1023)

Coffee Co.: Broxton Rocks Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 3♂, 2♀ ex 4 S. carolinensis, 1995 - 1996 (L1103, L1173, L1242, L1244); 1♂, 2♀ ex S. carolinensis, 22 Feb. 1996 (GSU).

Columbia Co.: Mistletoe State Park, 9♂, 31♀, 10N ex S. carolinensis (L2232).

Decatur Co.: 1♂ ex S. carolinensis, 21 Oct. 1947 (LAD); unspecified host (Kim et al. (1986).

Thomas Co.: 1♂, 2♀ ex S. carolinensis, 8 Jul. 1948 (LAD); unspecified host (Kim et al. (1986).

Southeastern Georgia: (Bulloch, Chatham, Coffee, Liberty and Screven counties), ex S. carolinensis (Durden et al. 2004a).

Southwestern Georgia (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): 2 specimens ex D. virginiana, 13 specimens ex 3 S. carolinensis, 6 specimens ex 3 S. niger (Morlan 1952).

Notes: This louse parasitizes several species of tree squirrels in North, Central and South America (Durden and Musser 1994). In Georgia, it is evidently a widely distributed ectoparasite of the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, but there are also records from the fox squirrel, S. niger. In the mountains of northern Georgia, it probably also parasitizes the red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben), another known host of this louse in some other States (Durden and Musser 1994). Morlan (1952) recorded H. sciuricola from 3 of 101 (3%) S. carolinensis (mean per infested host = 4.3) and from 3 of 42 (7%) S. niger (mean per infested host = 2.0) in southwestern Georgia. In southeastern Georgia, Durden et al. (2004a) recorded 14 of 67 (21%) S. carolinensis from woodland habitats to be infested by a mean of 11.3 H. sciuricola per infested squirrel and 6 of 53 (11%) S. carolinensis from parkland habitats to be infested by a mean of 6.2 H. sciuricola per infested squirrel.

Hoplopleura trispinosa Kellogg and Ferris, 1915 (Family Hoplopleuridae)

Bryan Co.: Fort Stewart, 16♂, 41♀, 1N ex 14 G. volans, 1997, (L2586, L2587, L2589, L2590, L2592, L2593, L2600, L2602, L2627, L2632, L2637, L2639, L2640, L2649) (Pung et al. 2000).

Bulloch Co.: Akins-Tucker Tract, 16♂, 28♀, 5N ex 11 G. volans, Jul.-Oct. 2003 (L3100, L3102, L3106–L3110, L3112, L3149, L3193, L3194) (Nims 2005).

Candler Co.: Charles Harrold Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 55♂, 53♀, 13N ex 5 G. volans, 2002 - 2003 (L3017, L3101, L3103–L3105) (Nims 2005).

Unspecified Co.: Fort Stewart, 1♂ ex G. volans, 12 Mar, 1960 (LAD), unspecified host (Kim et al. 1986).

Notes: Hoplopleura trispinosa is a widespread ectoparasite of the flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw) and Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus) in North America (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994). Pung et al. (2000) reported 14 of 70 (20%) G. volans sampled from Fort Stewart to have a mean of 4.1 H. trispinosa per infested host. Nims (2005) recorded 5 of 6 (83%) G. volans from Candler Co. to have a mean of 24.2 H. trispinosa per infested host and 10 of 11 (91%) G. volans from Bulloch Co. to have a mean of 4.9 H. trispinosa per infested host.

Linognathus africanus Kellogg and Paine, 1911 (Family Linognathidae)

Bulloch Co.: 5 miles west of Statesboro, 1♂ ex C. hircus, 6 Mar. 1982 (GSU).

Unspecified Co.: “southern Georgia,” ex C. hircus (Becklund 1957).

Notes: Linognathus africanus is a widespread ectoparasite of domestic goats, Capra hircus Linnaeus, and sheep, Ovis aries Linnaeus, throughout most of the warmer parts of the world (Durden and Musser 1994). In North America, it has previously been recorded from Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York and Texas. (Kim et al. 1986). This louse appears to be scarce in Georgia but few goats or sheep have been screened for lice within the state.

Linognathus setosus (von Olfers, 1816) (dog sucking louse) (Family Linognathidae)

Clarke Co.: Athens, ex C. familiaris (Dement 1965).

Fulton Co.: Atlanta, 1♂, 4♀ ex C. familiaris, 19 Nov. 1947 (GSU, LAD), unspecified host (Kim et al. 1986).

Unspecified Co.: ex C. familiaris (Cooperrider 1952).

Notes: Surprisingly, there are few records of this cosmopolitan ectoparasite of canids (especially domestic dogs) (Durden and Musser 1994) from Georgia. It is likely more common on dogs in the state than the above records suggest.

Linognathus vituli (Linnaeus, 1758) (long nosed cattle louse) (Family Linognathidae)

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 100s of specimens ex B. taurus, 11 Jan. 1985 (GSU), 100s of specimens ex B. taurus, 8 Feb. 1985 (GSU). Unspecified locality, 3♂, 16♀, 2N ex B. taurus, 9 Apr. 1985 (GSU).

Camden Co.: Cumberland Island, ex B. taurus (feral) (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Catoosa Co.: 1♀ ex H. sapiens (crawling on arm of veterinarian), 22 Oct. 1990 (UGCA).

Southern Georgia: ex C. hircus (Becklund 1957, 1964).

Unspecified Co.: (Burke, Butts, Clarke, Glynn, Pickens, Pike, Putnam, Spalding, Sumter, Thomas, Tift, Toombs, White, Whitfield counties), “lice” [L. vituli, S. capillatus and the cattle biting louse Bovicola bovis (Linnaeus)] were reported from these counties but lice species were not specified by county, ex B. taurus (Roberts 1963).

Notes: Domestic cattle, Bos taurus Linnaeus, are the typical hosts this cosmopolitan ectoparasite (Durden and Musser 1994). The record from a goat (C. hircus) in southern Georgia is very unusual. It should be considered that these specimens could have been misidentified and that they might have actually been Linognathus stenopsis (the goat sucking louse) which is morphologically similar to L. vituli (see illustrations in Kim et al. 1986). Linognathus vituli appears to be a fairly widespread ectoparasite of cattle in Georgia.

Microphthirus uncinatus (Ferris, 1916) (Family Enderleinellidae)

Bryan Co.: Fort. Stewart, 25♂, 34♀, 4N ex 11 G. volans, 1997 (L2601, L2610, L2627, L2632, L2637, L2648, L2651, L2653 - 2656) (LAD) (Pung et al. 2000).

Bulloch Co.: Akins-Tucker Tract, 8♂, 15♀ ex 11 G. volans, Jul.-Oct. 2003 (L3100, L3102, L3106–L3110, L3112, L3149, L3193, L3194) (Nims 2005).

Candler Co.: Charles Harrold Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 13♂, 9♀ ex 5 G. volans, 2002 - 2003 (L3101, L3103–L3105, L3017) (Nims 2005).

Notes: Microphthirus uncinatus is the smallest known species of sucking louse in the world with adult males averaging about 0.35 mm in length and females about 0.45 mm (Kim et al. 1986). Like H. trispinosa and N. sciuropteri, this louse parasitizes both species of flying squirrels, G. sabrinus and G. volans, in North America (Durden and Musser 1994). However, to date, M. uncinatus has only been recorded from British Columbia, California, Georgia, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania (Whitaker and Lukoschus 1982, Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994, Pung et al. 2000, Nims 2005). Presumably, it is more widespread than these records indicate, but it has probably not been recorded in some ectoparasite surveys because of its tiny size. Pung et al. (2000) recorded 11 of 70 (16%) G. volans examined to be parasitized by a mean of 5.7 M. uncinatus per infested host at Fort Stewart. Nims (2005) recorded 5 of 6 (83%) G. volans from Candler Co. to have a mean of 4.4 M. uncinatus per infested host and 9 of 11 (82%) G. volans from Bulloch Co. to have a mean of 2.6 M. uncinatus per infested host.

Neohaematopinus sciuri Jancke, 1932 (Family Polyplacidae)

Brooks Co.: 1♂ ex S. carolinensis, 27 Feb. 1948 (LAD).

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 2♀ ex 2 S. carolinensis, 11 - 12 May 1993, (L546, L549); 5♂, 10♀, 7N ex 4 S. carolinensis, May 1994, (L871, L873, L874, L878); 1N ex S. carolinensis, 18 May 1994 (GSU); 1N ex S. carolinensis, 20 May 1994 (GSU); 1♂ ex S. carolinensis, 15 Jun. 1994 (L915); 49♂, 73♀, 278N ex 6 S. carolinensis, 18 Jan. 1997, (L1293 - 1297, L1299); 30♂, 60♀, 125N ex 32 S. carolinensis, 1995 - 2001, (L1046, L1050, L1161, L1179, L1194, L1195, L1290, L1306, L1308, L1316, L1317, L1321, L1323, L1326 - 1329, L1348, L2452 - 2454, L2585, L2716, L2745, L2746, L2818 - 2823, L2855); 1♀ ex S. carolinensis, 9 Apr. 2012. Unspecified locality, 1N ex S. carolinensis, 15 Nov. 1981 (GSU); 1♀, 1N ex S. carolinensis, 15 Nov. 1982 (GSU).

Camden Co.: Cumberland Island, 1♂, 4♀ ex S. carolinensis, 8 Dec. 1974, (L1579); ex S. carolinensis (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Chatham Co.: Savannah, Oatland Island, 1♀ ex S. carolinensis, 9 Feb. 1948 (LAD); Savannah, Skidaway Island, 1♀ ex S. carolinensis, 21 Apr. 2012 (GSU); Savannah, Wormsloe State Historic Site, 16♂, 21♀, 11N ex 2 S. carolinensis, Feb. 1995 (L1021, L1023); unspecified locality, 2♂, 3♀, 1N ex S. carolinensis, 25 Feb. 1969 (LAD).

Coffee Co.: Broxton Rocks Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 4♂, 4♀, 4N ex 4 S. carolinensis, 1995 - 1996, (L1103, L1173, L1242, L1244).

Columbia Co.: Mistletoe State Park, 1♂, 4♀, 3N ex S. carolinensis (L2232).

Decatur Co.: ex S. carolinensis (Kim et al. 1986).

Evans Co.: Claxton, 2♀ ex S. carolinensis, 12 Feb. 2012 (GSU)

Grady Co.: ex S. carolinensis (Kim et al. 1986).

Screven Co.: Oliver, 1♀, 9N ex S. carolinensis, 19 Feb. 1999 (L1578)

Thomas Co.: ex S. carolinensis (Kim et al. 1986).

Southeastern Georgia: (Bulloch, Chatham, Coffee, Liberty and Screven counties), ex S. carolinensis (Durden et al. 2004a).

Southwestern Georgia: (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): 87 specimens ex 15 S. carolinensis (Morlan 1952) (reported as N. sciurinus).

Notes: Neohaematopinus sciuri is a Holarctic species that parasitizes the eastern gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, in eastern North America and the Eurasian red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, in Eurasia (Durden 1980, Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994). This louse has also been inadvertently cointroduced as an ectoparasite of S. carolinensis into several other parts of the world such as South Africa and Australia (Durden and Musser 1994). It is evidently widely distributed in Georgia. Morlan (1952) recorded 15 of 101 (15%) S. carolinensis to be parasitized by a mean of 5.8 N. sciuri (reported as N. sciurinus) per infested squirrel in southwestern Georgia. In southeastern Georgia, Durden et al. (2004a) recorded 22 of 67 (33%) S. carolinensis from woodland habitats to be infested by a mean of 26.0 N. sciuri per infested squirrel and 24 of 53 (45%) S. carolinensis from parkland habitats to be infested by a mean of 8.4 N. sciuri per infested squirrel.

Neohaematopinus sciurinus (Mjöberg, 1910) (Family Polyplacidae)

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 5♂, 3♀, 12N ex S. niger, 10 Apr. 1999 (L2458).

Decatur Co.: ex S. niger (Kim et al. 1986).

Thomas Co.: ex S. niger (Kim et al. 1986).

Southwest Georgia (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): 457 specimens ex 17 S. niger, 20 specimens ex M. mephitis (Morlan 1952).

Notes: Neohaematopinus sciurinus parasitizes the fox squirrel, S. niger, in eastern North America and at least 6 additional species of Sciurus in parts of Central America and the southwestern United States (Durden and Musser 1994). There are few records from Georgia and all but one of them are from the southern part of the state. Morlan (1952) recorded 17 of 42 (40%) S. niger to be parasitized by a mean of 29.4 N. sciurinus per infested squirrel in southwestern Georgia.

Neohaematopinus sciuropteri (Osborn, 1891) (Family Polyplacidae)

Brooks Co.: ex G. volans (Kim et al. 1986).

Bryan Co.: Fort Stewart, 79♂, 102♀, 164N ex 44 G. volans, 1997 (L2588, L2590–L2592, L2594–L2608, L2611, L2612, L2617, L2624, L2626, L2627, L2630–L2636, L2638, L2640, L2643, L2646, L2647–L2650, L2652, L2653, L2655) (Pung et al. 2000).

Bulloch Co.: Akins-Tucker Tract, 18♂, 12♀, 79N ex 11 G. volans, Jul.-Oct. 2003 (L3100, L3102, L3106–L3110, L3112, L3149, L3193, L3194) (Nims 2005); Middleground Tract, 6♂, 6♀, 15N ex G. volans, 21 June 2003. (L3111) (Nims 2005).

Candler Co.: Charles Harrold Nature Conservancy of Georgia Preserve, 54♂, 61♀, 264N ex 6 G. volans, 2002 - 2003 (L3101, L3103–L3105, L3017) (Nims 2005).

Decatur Co.: 1♀ ex G. volans, 27 Oct. 1948 (LAD); ex G. volans (Kim et al. 1986).

Southwest Georgia (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): 1 specimen ex G. volans (Morlan 1952).

Notes: This louse is widespread in North America as an ectoparasite of both species of flying squirrels (G. sabrinus and G. volans) native to this continent (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994). Morlan (1952) recorded 1 of 14 (7%) G. volans to be parasitized by a mean of 1.0 N. sciuropteri per infested flying squirrel in southwestern Georgia. Pung et al. (2000) recorded 44 of 70 (63%) G. volans to be infested by a mean of 7.8 N. sciuropteri per infested host at Fort Stewart. Nims (2005) recorded 6 of 6 (100%) of G. volans in Candler Co. to have a mean of 63.2 N. sciuropteri per infested host and 6 of 11 (55%) G. volans in Bulloch Co. to have a mean of 18.2 N. sciuropteri per infested host.

Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778 (head louse) (Family Pediculidae)

Bacon Co.: 2♂, 3N, 2 ova ex H. sapiens, 30 Apr. 1996 (GSU).

Barrow Co.: ex H. sapiens (Slonka et al. 1976).

Bryan Co.: Pembroke, 2♂, 3♀, 1N, 8 ova ex 4 H. sapiens, 30 Sep. – 9 Oct. 2013.

Bulloch Co.: Nevils, 9♂, 8♀, 1N, 6 ova ex 9 H. sapiens, 14 - 28 Mar. 2013; 3♂, 4♀, 6N ex 5 H. sapiens, 15 - 18 Apr. 2013; Statesboro, 1♀ ex H. sapiens, Nov. 2004 (L3404); 1♀ ex H. sapiens, Oct. 2005 (L3406); 2♀ ex H. sapiens, 6 Apr. 2006, (L3409); 3♂, 2♀, 3N, 4 ova ex 2 H. sapiens, 23 Aug. 2013. Unspecified locality, 2♀ ex 2 H. sapiens, Feb. 2006 (L3407, L3408); 1♀ ex H. sapiens, 23 Oct. 2007 (GSU).

Dawson Co.: ex H. sapiens (Naeher et al. 2009)

Effingham Co.: Guyton, 1♀ ex H. sapiens, Aug. 2007 (L3410).

Evans Co.: 2 ova (attached to hair) ex H. sapiens, 2 Feb. 2012 (GSU).

Forsyth Co.: ex H. sapiens (Naeher et al. 2009).

Fulton Co.: Atlanta, ex H. sapiens (Williams et al. 2001).

Jenkins Co.: Millen, 1♂, 3♀, 3N ex H. sapiens, Nov. 1996, (L1261, L1262).

Richmond Co.: Fort Gordon, 1N ex H. sapiens, 15 Sep. 1970 (GSU).

Screven Co.: Unspecified locality, 1♂, 1♀ ex H. sapiens, 18 Jul. 2005 (L3310).

Toombs Co.: Vidalia, 1 ♂, 1♀, 1 nit ex H. sapiens, 1 Aug. 2005 (L3405).

Notes: The head louse is a cosmopolitan associate of humans (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994) and probably occurs in every county in Georgia, mainly as an ectoparasite of children between the ages of 4 and 12 (Falagas et al. 2008). Slonka et al. (1976) recorded 53 of 1783 (3%) Caucasian and 0 of 500 (0%) African American elementary school children in Barrow Co. to be infested by head lice. Williams et al. (2001) recorded 28 of 1729 (2%) students at 2 metropolitan Atlanta elementary schools to be infested by head lice and 63 of them (4%) to have nits (louse eggs) but no lice.

Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, 1758 (body louse) (Family Pediculidae)

Fulton Co.: Atlanta, 1♂ ex H. sapiens, Dec. 1946 (LAD).

Notes: The body louse has been associated with humans for millennia (Reed et al. 2007) and has been responsible for transmitting at least 3 louse-borne pathogens which have influenced human history (Raoult and Roux 1999). Since the advent of better pediculicidal (louse-killing) applications and improved standards of hygiene, the body louse has become increasingly rare especially in developed nations (Bonilla et al. 2013). Although we have only 1 confirmed record of the body louse from Georgia, this species was probably a fairly frequent ectoparasite of humans in the state until the 1940s when relatively effective pediculicidal treatments became available. We suspect the body louse is still present in Georgia, perhaps on certain homeless persons as has been recorded in some other parts of the USA (Bonilla et al. 2009). The body louse is the only species of louse that oviposits on clothing which can be significant if a change of clothing or de-lousing of clothes is not an option.

Polyplax auricularis Kellogg and Ferris, 1915 (Family Polyplacidae)

Rabun Co.: Rabun Bald (1431 m elevation), ex Peromyscus sp. (Kim et al. 1986).

Notes: This louse parasitizes various species of Peromyscus and Onychomys in North and Central America (Durden and Musser 1994). However, most records in the USA are from northern States or at higher elevations in southern States (Kim et al. 1986). The only record from Georgia is from the highest elevation in the state.

Polyplax serrata (Burmeister, 1838) (mouse louse) (Family Polyplacidae)

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 7♂, 15♀, 3N ex M. musculus (laboratory mouse colony), 4 Mar. 1985 (GSU).

Southwest Georgia (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): 50 specimens ex 35 M. musculus (Morlan 1952).

Notes: Polyplax serrata is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of the house mouse/laboratory mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus) (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Musser 1994). Morlan (1952) recorded 35 of 520 (7%) M. musculus to have a mean of 1.4 P. serrata (reported as P. spinulosa by Morlan) per infested mouse in southwestern Georgia.

Taxonomic note: In previous publications, the original dates of description for several anopluran species described by H. Burmeister (1838) in his “Genera Insectorum” have been given as 1838, whereas others described on the same pages have been changed to 1839 without clear explanation for the change. The recent online availability of the book has shown that there is no reason for changing the description date for any of these species to 1839. Therefore, the date for all species described in Genera Insectorum” is now given as 1838 (Ricardo L. Palma, pers. comm., 2013). These date changes have been applied to 2 species treated in this paper, namely P. serrata and P spinulosa. The dates for 2 more Burmeister (1838) species mentioned in this paper, namely Hoplopleura acanthopus (Burmeister) and Linognathus stenopsis (Burmeister) (see Discussion), were previously listed as 1838 in taxonomic works and, therefore, remain unchanged.

Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister, 1838) (spined rat louse) (Family Polyplacidae)

Baldwin Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Smith 1957).

Brooks Co.: ex R. rattus (Hill and Morlan 1948); ex Rattus sp. (Morlan 1947).

Bulloch Co.: Denmark, 3♂, 5♀, 4N ex R. rattus, 26 Feb. 1999, (L2377). Statesboro, 1♂ ex unspecified host, 13 Nov. 1972 (GSU); 1♀ ex R. norvegicus, 16 Jul. 1994 (L916).

Burke Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Smith 1957).

Chatham Co.: Savannah, ex R. norvegicus (Fox 1931, Ludwig and Nicholson 1947); 37,961 specimens ex 5,242 Rattus spp. (R. norvegicus and R. rattus combined), 1932 (Cole and Koepke 1947); 15,363 specimens ex 2,571 Rattus spp. (R. norvegicus and R. rattus combined), 1933 (Cole and Koepke 1947).

Cook Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Morlan 1947).

Decatur Co.: 1♂ ex crow, 15 Apr. 1948 (LAD).

Grady Co.: ex R. norvegicus and R. rattus (Hill and Morlan 1948, Mohr and Smith 1957).

Greene Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Smith 1957).

Hancock Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Smith 1957).

Jenkins Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Smith 1957).

Richmond Co.: ex Rattus spp. (Smith 1957).

Thomas Co.: ex R, norvegicus and R. rattus (Hill and Morlan 1948); 1♀ ex M. austroriparius, 26 Feb. 1948 (LAD); 1♀ ex shrew, 11 Mar. 1948 (LAD).

Whitfield Co.: Mount Vernon, 2♂, 4♀, 1N ex R norvegicus, 25 Jun. 1971 (GSU, LAD).

Southwestern Georgia: (Brooks, Grady and Thomas counties), ex Rattus spp., 1945 - 1949 (Hill et al. 1951).

Southwestern Georgia (Brooks, Cook, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): 7 specimens ex 5 D. virginiana, 12 specimens ex M. austroriparius, 4 specimens ex 2 S. carolinensis, 2 specimens ex O. palustris, 21 specimens ex 15 P. gossypinus, 11 specimens ex 9 P. polionotus, 15 specimens ex 13 S. hispidus, 4 specimens ex 4 N. floridana, 2 specimens ex 2 M. pinetorum, 76,913 specimens ex 5,440 R. norvegicus, 132,220 specimens ex 13,613 R. rattus, 3 specimens ex 2 P. lotor (Morlan 1952). (Brooks, Decatur, Grady and Thomas counties): ex R. norvegicus and R. rattus (Love and Smith 1960). (Brooks, Grady and Thomas counties): ex R. norvegicus and R. rattus (Morlan and Hines 1951, Morlan and Utterback 1952).

Unspecified Co.: (Kim et al. 1986). Pratt and Karp (1953) and Pratt and Good (1954) depicted a small scale map of the USA (the same map in each paper) with dots showing collection localities for P. spinulosa including 87 dots for Georgia, mostly in the southern half of the state.

Notes: Polyplax spinulosa parasitizes R. norvegicus and R. rattus throughout the world and peridomestic Rattus spp. are the true hosts of this louse (Durden and Musser 1994). The other host records reported by Morlan (1952) are atypical and likely represent cross contaminations between host specimens. In Savannah, Cole and Koepke (1947) recorded 39.7% of 5,242 Rattus spp. to be infested by a mean of 7.78 P. spinulosa per rat in 1932 and 4.4% of 2,571 Rattus spp. to be infested by a mean of 4.48. In Brooks Co., Hill et al. (1951) recorded 58.5% of 1,530 domestic rats to be infested by P. spinulosa in 1946 - 1947 prior to DDT dusting; following DDT dusting, they reported infestation prevalences to be 51.0% of 2,170 rats (May 1947-April 1948), 72.6% of 2,224 rats (May 1948 - April 1949) and 63.8% of 1,523 rats (May – November 1949), respectively. Data for adjacent Grady and Thomas counties showed slightly higher infestation prevalences (up to 76.6%) but did not demonstrate a reduction in prevalence the year after DDT dusting (Hill et al. 1951). Morlan (1952) recorded P. spinulosa from 5,440 of 8,082 (67%) R. norvegicus (mean per infested host = 14.1) and from 13,613 of 20,489 (66%) R. rattus (mean per infested host = 9.7) in southwestern Georgia. Morlan and Utterback (1952) reported 72.8% of 3,984 R. rattus and 76.9% of 1,940 R. norvegicus from untreated sites in Grady Co. to be infested with P spinulosa between 1946 - 1949 compared with 65.8% of 5,174 R. rattus and 69.6% of 1970 R. norvegicus in DDT-treated sites in Thomas Co. and 62.9% of 7,204 R. rattus and 67.1% of 215 R. norvegicus in DDT-treated sites in Brooks Co. during the same time period. Mohr and Smith (1957) reported 60% of 58 R. norvegicus to have a mean of 10.0 P spinulosa per infested rat and 57% of 81 R. norvegicus to have a mean of 12.0 per infested rat in 1955.

Morlan (1947) reported that dusting rat (Rattus sp.) runs and harborages in Brooks and Cook counties with 10% flavin dust, flavin dust mixed with 8% DDT or a sulphur-DDT mixture gave nonsignificant control of P. spinulosa numbers on rats. Ludwig and Nicholson (1947) similarly reported relatively minor reductions in mean numbers of P. spinulosa infesting R. norvegicus in Savannah (Chatham Co.) following the application of 10% DDT dust to rat-infested premises.

Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758) (crab louse) (Family Pthiridae)

Bulloch Co.: Statesboro, 10♀, 10N ex H. sapiens, 10 Jan. 1984 (GSU); 1♀ ex H. sapiens, 1 Apr. 1993 (L672).

Columbia Co.: Augusta, 1♂ ex H. sapiens (on eyelash), 16 Mar. 2000 (L2741).

Lincoln Co.: Lincolnton, 2N ex H. sapiens, 1993 (GSU).

Ware Co.: 1♀ ex H. sapiens, 8 Feb. 1982 (GSU).

Notes: The crab louse (= pubic louse) is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of humans (Kim et al. 1986). Despite the relatively small number of records reported here, it is probably widespread in Georgia. Infestations are often presented or detected at Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) clinics. The large, robust tibio-tarsal claws of P. pubis are adapted for clinging to thick human hairs such as those in the pubic region as well as eyebrows, eyelashes, and underarm hairs in both sexes and beard, moustache and chest hairs of males.

Solenopotes binipilosus (Fahrenholz, 1916) (Family Linognathidae)

Unspecified Co.: ex O. virginianus (Kellogg et al. 1971).

Notes: Solenopotes binipilosus parasitizes deer in North, Central and South America (Durden and Musser 1994). In North America, it parasitizes white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), with known records from the southern United States (Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas) (Kellogg et al. 1971, Kim et al. 1986).

Solenopotes capillatus Enderlein, 1904 (little blue cattle louse) (Family Linognathidae)

Camden Co.: Cumberland Island, ex B. taurus (feral) (Wilson and Durden 2003).

Fulton Co.: Atlanta, ex B. taurus (Kim et al. 1986).

Unspecified Co.: (Burke, Butts, Clarke, Glynn, Pickens, Pike, Putnam, Spalding, Sumter, Thomas, Tift, Toombs, White, Whitfield counties), “lice” (L. vituli, S. capillatus and the cattle biting louse Bovicola bovis (Linnaeus, 1758)) were reported from these counties but lice species were not specified by county, ex B. taurus (Roberts 1963).

Notes: The little blue cattle louse parasitizes domestic cattle throughout the Holarctic region although it has also been recorded as an invasive species in some other parts of the world such as Australia, southern Africa and Vietnam (Durden and Musser 1994). It is probably more widespread in Georgia than the above records indicate.

HOST-SUCKING LICE ASSOCIATIONS RECORDED IN GEORGIA, USA

For principal hosts, louse names are in bold font; for accidental hosts and suspected erroneous published host associations, louse names are in regular font)

“Crow:” Polyplax spinulosa

“Shrew:” Polyplax spinulosa

Didelphis virginiana Kerr (Virginia opossum): Hoplopleura hirsuta, Hoplopleura sciuricola, Polyplax spinulosa

Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads) (southeastern myotis): Polyplax spinulosa

Canis familiaris L. (domestic dog): Linognathus setosus

Mephitis mephitis (Schreber) (striped skunk): Neohaematopinus sciurinus

Ursus americanus Pallas (American black bear): Haematopinus suis

Homo sapiens L. (human): Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculus humanus humanus, Pthirus pubis, Linognathus vituli

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) (white-tailed deer): Solenopotes binipilosus

Sus scrofa L. (hog – domestic and feral): Haematopinus suis

Bos taurus L. (domestic cattle): Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus

Capra hircus L. (goat): Linognathus africanus, Linognathus vituli

Equus caballus Linnaeus (horse): Haematopinus asini

“Equines:” Haematopinus asini

Microtus pinetrorum (LeConte) (woodland vole): Polyplax spinulosa

Neotoma floridana (Ord) (eastern woodrat): Hoplopleura hirsuta, Polyplax spinulosa

Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan) (golden mouse): Hoplopleura hesperomydis

Oryzomys palustris (Harlan) (marsh oryzomys): Hoplopleura oryzomydis, Hoplopleura hirsuta, Polyplax spinulosa

Peromyscus gossypinus (LeConte) (cotton mouse): Hoplopleura hesperomydis, Hoplopleura hirsuta, Polyplax spinulosa

Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner) (oldfield mouse): Hoplopleura hesperomydis, Hoplopleura hirsuta, Polyplax spinulosa

Peromyscus sp.: Hoplopleura hesperomydis, Polyplax auricularis

Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord (hispid cotton rat): Hoplopleura hirsuta, Hoplopleura hesperomydis, Polyplax spinulosa

Glaucomys volans (L.) (southern flying squirrel): Hoplopleura trispinosa, Microphthirus uncinatus, Neohaematopinus sciuropteri

Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin (gray squirrel): Enderleinellus longiceps, Hoplopleura sciuricola, Neohaematopinus sciuri, Polyplax spinulosa

Sciurus niger L. (fox squirrel): Hoplopleura sciuricola, Neohaematopinus sciurinus

“Squirrel:” Enderleinellus longiceps

Tamias striatus (L.) (eastern chipmunk): Hoplopleura erratica

Mus musculus L. (house/laboratory mouse): Polyplax serrata

Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) (Norway/brown rat): Hoplopleura pacifica, Polyplax spinulosa

Rattus rattus (L.) (roof/black rat): Hoplopleura pacifica, Polyplax spinulosa

Rattus spp.: Hoplopleura pacifica, Polyplax spinulosa

The sucking louse fauna of Georgia, USA. Overall, we report 25 species (including 2 taxa that are currently treated as subspecies) of sucking lice from Georgia. This represents 32.5% of the 77 species of sucking lice known to be established in North America (Kim et al. 1986, Durden and Rausch 2007). In adjoining Tennessee, Durden et al. (1997) similarly documented 25 species of sucking lice. Twenty species of Anoplura are shared between the Tennessee list and the Georgia list reported here. Notably, H. asini, M. uncinatus, N. sciurinus, P. serrata, and S. binipilosus were recorded in Georgia but not in Tennessee; whereas, Haemodipsus ventricosus (Denny), Hoplopleura captiosa Johnson, Linognathus pedalis (Osborn), Neohaematopinus semifasciatus Ferris, and Solenopotes ferrisi (Fahrenholz) were recorded in Tennessee but not in Georgia. However, because the hosts of these lice occur in both states, it is possible that all of these species actually occur in both of these states. Similarly, Reeves et al. (2004) recorded 22 species of sucking lice in South Carolina including 2 species (Enderleinellus marmotae Ferris and Haematopinus quadripertusus Fahrenholz) that we did not record in Georgia. Humans, domestic mammals (excluding cats, guinea pigs and some other species that are not parasitized by sucking lice) and wild mammals are fairly widely parasitized by sucking lice in Georgia.

Most species of sucking lice are quite host specific (Durden and Musser 1994), and it is unfortunate that Morlan (1952) reported so many atypical host associations for sucking lice in Georgia. Nevertheless, because Morlan’s records are published, we have listed them in the respective species accounts for lice and in the host-sucking louse list (where they are identified in regular font). Notwithstanding Morlan’s records, we consider all species of sucking lice known from Georgia to be host specific to varying suffix. For example, P. humanus capitis, P. humanus humanus, and P. pubis are all highly host specific ectoparasites of humans, H. suis is host specific to domestic and feral hogs, H. erratica is host specific to the eastern chipmunk, H. hirsuta is host specific to the cotton rat, and N. sciuri is host specific to the eastern gray squirrel. Some examples of Georgia species of sucking lice that are a little less host specific include H. asini which parasitizes equines in the genus Equus, H. sciuricola which parasitizes both gray and fox squirrels (as well as some other species of tree squirrels in other parts of North and Central America – see Durden and Musser (1994)), and all 3 species of sucking lice from the southern flying squirrel (H. trispinosa, M. uncinatus, N. sciuropteri) which also parasitize the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (see Durden and Musser 1994).

We suspect additional species of Anoplura occur in Georgia, especially in the mountainous areas in the north of the state where some host species uniquely occur in Georgia. Accordingly, we believe the following 10 species of sucking lice, listed with their hosts, may occur on appropriate hosts in Georgia:

Enderleinellus marmotae Ferris, 1919; Host: Marmota monax L. (woodchuck/groundhog)

Haematopinoides squamosus Osborn, 1891; Host: Scalopus aquaticus (L.) (eastern mole).

Haematopinus quadripertusus Fahrenholz, 1916; (cattle tail louse), Host: B. taurus (domestic cattle) - this louse is not native to North America but it has been recorded previously on cattle in some southern states such as Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina and Texas (Kim et al. 1986, Reeves et al. 2004).

Haemodipsus ventricosus (Denny, 1842); Host: laboratory/European rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)].

Hoplopleura acanthopus (Burmeister, 1838); Hosts: voles (Microtus spp., Clethrionomys spp.).

Hoplopleura captiosa Johnson, 1960; Host: M. musculus (house/laboratory mouse).

Linognathus pedalis (Osborn, 1896) (sheep foot louse), Host: domestic sheep (O. aries).

Linognathus stenopsis (Burmeister, 1838) (goat sucking louse); Host: domestic goat (C. hircus) - see “Notes” for record of L. vituli from C. hircus in Georgia.

Neohaematopinus semifasciatus Ferris, 1916; Host: T. hudsonicus (red squirrel).

Solenopotes ferrisi (Fahrenholz, 1919); Host: O. virginianus (white-tailed deer).

Medical/Veterinary importance of sucking lice in Georgia, USA. Three taxa of sucking lice (P. humanus humanus, P. humanus capitis, and P. pubis) have direct medical importance and at least 10 species of sucking lice (H. asini, H. eurysternus, H. suis, H. pacifica, L africanus, L. setosus, L. vituli, P serrata, P. spinulosa, S. capillatus) have proven or potential veterinary importance in Georgia. Some of the other species of sucking lice we recorded from wild mammals in Georgia may be detrimental to their hosts, especially if the lice are present in large numbers, or if they transmit pathogens to them (Durden 2001), but little or no information is currently available on this topic.

As in most parts of the world (Falagas et al. 2008), we found the head louse to be the most common louse associated with humans in Georgia. We document recent collections from the state from elementary school children and older collections from humans of unrecorded age. Similarly, Slonka et al. (1976), Williams et al. (2001), and Naeher et al. (2009) reported head lice from school children in Barrow Co., metropolitan Atlanta, and Dawson and Forsyth counties, respectively. These collections appear to represent a small fraction of the number of head louse infestations in Georgia because school nurses from around the state consistently report widespread infestations of students mostly between the ages of 4 and 12 (Georgia Department of Public Health 2013). In recent studies, up to 61% of schoolchildren have been recorded to have head lice in various parts of the world (Falagas et al. 2008). Having head lice often causes intense pruritus, social stigmas, psychological stress, and missed school days but persistent or severe infestations can also induce clinical manifestations such as impetigo and enlarged cervical lymph nodes (Nutanson et al. 2008). Although some human pathogens have been isolated from, or detected in, head lice in various studies, to date there is no strong evidence to implicate head lice as vectors of these agents to humans (Fournier et al. 2002, Bonilla et al. 2009, 2013, Bouvresse et al. 2011, Brouqui 2011).

The body louse, P. humanus humanus, appears to be rare in Georgia; we document just a single confirmed specimen (from 1946 in Atlanta). Improved standards of hygiene and more efficacious body louse control methods since the 1940s have presumably led to the rarity of this ectoparasite in Georgia. Nevertheless, we suspect that concerted efforts to find this louse on some demographic groups (notably, certain homeless persons), will show that it persists in Georgia as it does on some of these groups of people in other states (Bonilla et al. 2009). The body louse is medically important, not only because of its intimate association with humans and its bloodsucking habits, but also because it can transmit at least 3 bacterial pathogens in nature all of which have shaped human history to some extent (Buxton 1946, Weyer 1960, Raoult and Roux 1999, Durden and Lloyd 2009, Bonilla et al. 2013). These pathogens are Rickettsia prowazekii da Rocha-Lima which causes epidemic (louse-borne) and recrudescent typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), Bartonella quintana (Schminke) which causes trench fever (sometimes called urban trench fever) and Borrelia recurrentis (Lebert) which causes relapsing (= recurrent) fever (Weyer 1960, Roux and Raoult 1999, Durden and Lloyd 2009). Under experimental conditions, body lice can also transmit Yersinia pestis (Lehmann and Neumann), the causative agent of plague (Houhamdi et al. 2006) and other zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia rickettsii (Wolbach), Rickettsia conorii Brumpt, and Rickettsia typhi (Wolbach and Todd), the causative agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Boutoneuse fever and murine typhus, respectively (Houhamdi et al. 2003, Houhamdi and Raoult 2006a). Additional bacteria that are pathogenic to humans have also been detected in body lice including Salmonella typhi (Schroeter), the causative agent of typhoid (salmonellosis) (Milner et al. 1957), Francisella tularensis (McCoy and Chapin), and Coxiella burnetii (Derrick), the causative agents of tularemia and Q fever, respectively, as well as Acinetobacter baumannii Bouvet and Grimont, Borrelia duttoni (Novy and Knapp), Serratia marcescens Bizio, and various species of Bartonella (Moosera nd Weyer 1954, Weyer 1960, Lascola et al. 2001, Houhamdi and Raoult 2006b, Reeves et al. 2006). None of these pathogens are yet known to be transmitted by human lice in nature and, currently, none of them are known to be circulating in Georgia in human lice. However, B. quintana currently infects homeless persons in the USA, particularly in some inner cities (Bonilla et al. 2009) and seroconversion to R. prowazekii has been reported in homeless individuals in Houston, TX (Reeves et al. 2008). However, the latter finding should be viewed with caution because at least 1 of the seropositive individuals had relocated to Houston from Mexico and because typhus group Rickettsia have also been detected in Amblyomma sp. ticks from northern Mexico (Medina-Sanchez et al. 2005). Further research and screening is required to determine if these agents are currently circulating between certain demographic groups of humans and their associated lice in Georgia.

Unique strains of R. prowazekii circulate between flying squirrels and their lice (N. sciuropteri) in various parts of the eastern United States causing no apparent disease in the flying squirrels which therefore appear to be efficient reservoir hosts for this pathogen (Sonenshine et al. 1978, Dasch et al. 1978, Reynolds et al. 2003, Chapman et al. 2009). Humans are sometimes infected by this pathogen (confirmed cases are from Florida, Georgia, Pennsylvania and Virginia) (Reynolds et al. 2003, Chapman et al. 2009) which strongly suggests that infected flying squirrels and flying squirrel lice are present in Georgia. This disease is typically referred to as sporadic (or sylvatic) epidemic typhus to distinguish it from the classical form of epidemic typhus which is transmitted by body lice (Chapman et al. 2009).

The crab louse (= pubic louse), P. pubis, appears to be widespread in Georgia but because of the stigma associated with having “crabs,” infested persons are unlikely to submit specimens for identification. In addition to the specimens we document from Georgia, records from STD clinics (Routh et al. 1994) suggest this louse is widespread. Like the head louse, P. pubis is not known to transmit any pathogens to humans in nature but it can cause intense pruritus, reddish skin lesions at bite sites, and social embarrassment (Durden and Lloyd 2009). Rarely, infestations are associated with other thickened body hairs (in addition to pubic hairs) such as eyelashes or eyebrows (Yamasaki et al. 1992, Klaus et al. 1994). Such cases recorded in young people can reflect incidences of child abuse and are typically subject to further medical investigation (Opaneye et al. 1993, Robinson and Ridgway 1994).

Some other sucking lice recorded in Georgia may have indirect medical importance as enzootic vectors of zoonotic pathogens between wild mammals. For example, both H. pacifica and P. spinulosa can transmit R. typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, between their peridomestic rat hosts (Traub et al. 1978). These lice do not feed on humans, but fleas such as Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild) (the Oriental rat flea) can feed on rats or humans and could act as bridge vectors of R. typhi between these hosts (Traub et al. 1978). Murine typhus was a widespread human disease in Georgia between the 1920s and 1940s with hundreds of annual cases (White 1970, Durden et al. 2012). The disease peaked in the USA in 1944 with 5,401 reported human cases, including 1,182 cases in Georgia (Pratt 1958). Intensive rat and rat-ectoparasite control programs throughout the state (especially in Savannah, Atlanta and southwestern Georgia) from the 1930s through the 1950s, combined with the advent of efficacious antibiotics, starting in the 1940s, led to the steady decline of murine typhus in Georgia (Pratt 1958, White 1970). No authochtonous human cases of murine typhus have been recorded in Georgia in recent years. Nevertheless, R. typhi likely still circulates in some rodent and ectoparasite populations in Georgia, and Reeves et al. (2005) detected this zoonotic pathogen in sucking lice (E. marmotae) collected from a marmot (M. monax) in adjoining South Carolina.

Large infestations of sucking lice on livestock animals such as cattle can result in lowered daily weight gains from a combination of blood loss and more time spent grooming or rubbing pruritic body areas against objects and less time spent feeding (Gibney et al. 1985, Durden and Lloyd 2009). The hog louse can transmit swinepox virus, a disfiguring and potentially fatal infection in pigs, especially piglets (Medalgia et al. 2011). Although several other livestock pathogens have been detected in, or isolated from, various species of livestock lice, evidence that lice are vectors of these pathogens in nature is unproven or inconclusive. Livestock pathogens in this category include Mycoplasma (formerly Eperythrozoon) suis (Splitter) and Mycoplasma (formerly Eperythrozoon) parvum (Splitter) of hogs, and Anaplasma spp., Brucella spp. and Theileria spp. of cattle (Heinritzi 1992, Fujusaki et al. 1993, Reeves et al. 2006, Durden and Lloyd 2009, Da Silva et al. 2013). Further, some livestock lice have been implicated as vectors of the fungal agents of ringworm (Kamyszek 1977). Although Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has been detected in the hog louse, H. suis, collected from wild boars in France (Doby et al. 1994), there is no evidence that lice are involved in the transmission of this pathogen.

Surprisingly, we report few records of the dog sucking louse, L. setosus, from Georgia. If this louse is present in large numbers on individual dogs, it could cause blood loss, pruritus, reddened skin lesions, and alopecia in its hosts. Further, developing larvae of canine filariasis parasites have been reported from L. setosus in other parts of the world (Pennington and Phelps 1969). Our records of lice parasitizing domestic dogs in Georgia reveal that the dog biting louse, Trichodectes canis (De Geer), which is not hematophagous (it feeds mainly on host hair and skin) is the principal species of louse associated with domestic dogs in this state (data not shown).

The mouse louse, P. serrata, is a vector of Mycoplasma (formerly Eperythrozoon) coccoides (Schilling) to the house mouse (= laboratory mouse) and the spined rat louse, P. spinulosa is a vector of Mycoplasma haemomuris (Mayer) (formerly Haemobartonella muris Mayer) to the Norway rat (= brown rat or laboratory rat) (Crystal 1958, 1959, Berkenkamp and Wescott 1988). Sometimes, these infections sweep through louse-infested laboratory mouse or rat colonies causing significant morbidity and mortality (Crystal 1959, Berkenkamp and Wescott 1988, Durden and Lloyd 2009). Based on molecular detection of the agents in lice, some species of lice that parasitize rodents may be enzootic vectors of various species of Bartonella, Brucella, Hepatozoon and Rickettsia (e.g., Parnas et al. 1960, Traub et al. 1978, Smith 1996, Reeves et al. 2005, 2006).

Little is known about the effects of louse infestations on wild mammals. In healthy, immunocompetent wildlife hosts that are capable of efficiently grooming themselves, sucking lice usually are not present in large numbers and do not appear to cause hardships (Durden 2001). However, debilitated, immunosuppressed, or grooming-impaired wild mammals may be infested with large populations of sucking lice that could cause significant pruritus, hair loss and anemia. Further, sucking lice of wild mammals may be vectors of pathogens to their hosts but little research has been completed in this area (Durden 2001). Nevertheless, Linognathus africanus has been recorded in large numbers on native deer (mule deer and white-tailed deer) in North America often resulting in alopecia, dermatitis, depression and poor growth rates, especially in fawns when compared with noninfested fawns (Brunetti and Cribbs 1971, Foreyt et al. 1986). In some instances, deer deaths have been attributed to large infestations of this louse (Brunetti and Cribbs 1971). Linognathus africanus typically feeds on goats and sheep so perhaps feeding on atypical host species such as native deer which may have poorly developed immunological or grooming responses against this louse, allow it to multiply resulting in large populations. In the future, more data should be forthcoming on the interrelationships between native wildlife and their associated sucking lice in Georgia and elsewhere.

This project was supported in part by a Georgia Southern University Faculty Research Grant to MEE and LAD. The authors thank Nancy E. Adams (deceased) for providing information on the Anoplura holdings in the USNM and E. Richard Hoebeke and Joseph McHugh for arranging a loan of the Anoplura holdings in the UGCA. We are indebted to Ricardo L. Palma (Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington) for deciphering the correct dates for Burmeister’s anopluran descriptions and for allowing us to include that information in this paper. The following individuals collected lice that are included in this report: P B. Armore, Alena E. Aviles, W. Wilson Baker, Craig W. Banks, Blair C. Barneycastle, Barbara V. Belbey, F. D. Bennett, Zachary Bentley, N. Bevins, Randy Brown, C. S. Bundy, Scott Buntin, Anne-Marie Callcott, Ellen M. Dotson, Lance A. Durden, Robert Duvall, Ronald D. Ellis, Colin Enfinger, Michael W. Felz, Mickey Fountain, L. Fox, Frank E. French, R. L. Garbutt, Krisy Gierke, K. Godley, Elmer Gray, M. Hagin, Stacy Harbin, Edward E. Harden, F. Harris, John S. Hasty, Stan Hasty, M. Heiges, C. G. Henry, Louise G. Henry, Laquita Holmes, Renjie Hu, M. Hustetler, James E. Keirans, D. Kennedy, Andrew Kinsey, E. A. Kohlhepp, Terry Laber, David R. Lavender, R. D. Little, D. R. Maddock, George Magnon, Nancy Maxwell, Sturgis McKeever, S. Moraitakis, Harvey B. Morlan, Monica Nichols, H. P. Nicholson, Emeka Ohuabunwa, D. Pence, Harry D. Pratt, Oscar J. Pung, Mr. Ramsey (initials not available), E. E. Rogers, Carol Ruckdeschel, F. Hunt Sanders, J. W. Strickland, Jennifer Taylor, L. Thompson, Dennis Treado, H. M. Upson, Kali Wasdin, and Anna Williams.

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Author notes

3 Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460.