Species diversity is undergoing rapid reductions globally. Identifying the causes underlying species diversity patterns and biodiversity hotspots is critical for developing conservation strategies. In this study, the 4,594 occurrence records of 854 Typhlocybinae (Heteroptera: Cicadellidae) species in China were used to investigate the factors affecting species richness and endemism patterns as well as identify species diversity hotspots to establish their conservation status. Generalized linear models and hierarchical partitioning were used to assess the effects of 6 environmental factors on species richness and endemism. Species diversity hotspots were obtained by integrating the 10 grids with highest levels of species richness and endemism; the conservation status of these hotspots was assessed via gap analysis. We found that species richness and endemism distribution of Typhlocybinae in China were heterogeneous, mainly concentrated in southern and central areas. The results also showed that plants were the most important environmental factors affecting species richness and endemism patterns, followed by niche conservatism. The 10 hotspots were identified; however, they were not fully protected by the existing nature reserves. This study highlights the importance of plants and niche conservatism in shaping species richness and endemism patterns of Typhlocybinae. Moreover, establishment of new nature reserves in hotspot areas with a conservation gap is required.

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