The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), seriously damages maize (Zea mays L.) crops in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of Mexico and around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the damage caused by S. frugiperda to six native maize populations and the natural parasites of S. frugiperda in three localities from Oaxaca, Mexico. Two native maize populations each of the Zapalote Chico, Bolita, and Conico-Chalqueño races were used. Plantings were done at Coatecas Altas, Santa Lucia Miahuatlan, and Villa de Zaachila under a randomized complete block design with four replications. The agroecological conditions of cultivation influenced the damage caused by S. frugiperda and influenced its natural parasitism. The ordered weighted mean damage in the localities was Villa de Zaachila (1.40–4.92) > Coatecas Altas (1.33–4.06) > Santa Lucia Miahuatlan (0.53–1.00). The order of parasitism rates in the localities was Villa de Zaachila (56.16%) ≈ Santa Lucia Miahuatlan (37.59%) > Coatecas Altas (14.27%). Zapalote Chico populations were less damaged by S. frugiperda larvae and flowered earlier than did the Conico-Chalqueño and Bolita populations. Thirteen parasitoid species and nematodes were recorded attacking S. frugiperda. Chelonus insularis Cresson was the most abundant parasitoid species across the locations. Members of 17 families of predators and 12 families of parasitoids also were identified as potential natural enemies of S. frugiperda. The population dynamics of this armyworm were determined by the environmental conditions of the location, maize population, transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage, and presence of natural enemies, whereas natural parasitism was influenced only by location.

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